Traditions (Tradycje Polskie)
Harvest Holiday, August
Dozynki, harvest holiday, was traditionally celebrated
at the end of the summer. The popular and colorful celebrations were
held by the nobility and larger landowners those owning large
tracts of land that required hiring farmers from all around the countryside
who had to be rewarded for their hard labor.
The symbol of Dozynki was a Wieniec, [harvest
wreath] which was presented to the landowner. This large wreath was
made of a mixture of wheat and rye, sometimes one or the other. These
grains were considered the most important. Crafted from the most beautiful
ears of grain, the Dozynki wreath was made
in the shape of a dome-shaped crown. It was decorated with flowers,
ribbons, hazelnuts, and the fruit of the mountain ash tree. The conclusion
of the harvest and the making of the wreath generally fell around the
Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin August 15 so
that it was taken to church to be blessed.
Wearing the wreath was considered an honor. Generally,
it was worn by a young girl involved in the harvesting, or someone
who was considered a very good worker. The chosen girl went to church
in great pomp and ceremony, wearing the wreath on her head while sitting
in a wagon pulled by four horses decorated in greenery and surrounded
by other young maidens wearing flowers in their hair. The group was
followed by all those involved in the harvest. After the wreath was
blessed the entire procession made for the manor house, singing the
songs that accompanied the event were usually those that were indigenous
to the area, perhaps unknown in other villages.
The entire procession stopped at the gate leading to
the manor house, its members continuing to sing until the owner emerged.
The girl wearing the wreath approached, removed it from her head, and
either handed it over to the owner or placed it on his head. Sometimes
the owner removed the wreath from the girl himself and placed it aside.
She was often given a handsome reward consisting of either money or
After rewarding those that offered the wreath, the owner
signaled to the musicians to start playing. Taking the young girl in
his arms, the lord of the manor started dancing. The part of the festivities
that everyone had been waiting for, the dancing and refreshments, began
The wreath, arriving only once a year, was cherished
and given much care. It was hung in a prominent place, such as in an
entrance hall, above a chest of drawers, or above the door of the main
living room as a symbol of prosperity.
by Stanley Garczynski from PGS of Texas Polish
Footprints Vol.XII No.3 Fall 1995
Feast of Greenery, September
8th (Matki Boskiej Zielnej)
As summer draws to an end, the Polish Feast of Greenery
takes place on September 8th. The farm people bring to church
great bouquets of herbs, vegetables, and corn, interwoven with a few
flowers from the fields and gardens, which are blessed by the priest.
These bouquets are carried home and kept until the name day of the
following year. When there is sickness in the household, the herbs
are brewed and used for medicinal purposes, not only for the people,
but for the livestock as well.
by Jeffery Roberts and Klasa Doroslych
All Saints All
Souls Day, November 1st and 2nd
(Dzien Wszystkich Swietych – Dzien Zaduszny)
All Saints Day, November 1st, traditionally has been
associated in Polish legend with ghosts and wayward souls. In ancient
times, when death entered a peasant's house, all doors and windows
were opened at the moment of passing. Mirrors were turned to the wall
so that the soul would not be captured in the room. The last rite included
a funeral banquet. The vigil lasted until the burial in order to protect
the dead soul from evil spirits.
Later, these pagan customs were Christianized and people
were encouraged to pray and light candles instead of conjuring
up spirits. The candles were to symbolize the eternal light for which
the soul yearns .
Today, All Saints – All Souls Day is celebrated in a
very solemn manner in Poland. On both days, at twilight, the Poles
make pilgrimages to their local cemeteries. The people decorate the
graves with chrysanthemums, asters, and autumn flowers ~ and place
candles and votive lights. When the graves are decorated and countless
flickering frame cast their haunting shadows amid the dusk, the mood
is set for an outdoor service and prayers for departed souls.
by Jeffery Roberts and Klasa Doroslych
St. Andrew's Night,
November 30th (Noc Sw. Andrzeja albo Andrzejki)
In Poland, fortune telling sets the mood for this evening
of merriment which might be the theme for an autumn social gathering.
Single girls pour hot, melted wax into a bowl of cold water, and the
hardened wax is then held up to the light. The shadow it casts
on the wall is said to reveal the girls' marriage prospects: if its
shape resembles something used by a man, she will marry within a year.
The shadow may also contain a clue to who the future husband might
be (traits, interests, occupation). Another traditional pastime
is for the girls to toss their shoes to the middle of the floor. The
first shoe to go over the threshold is that of the girl who will marry
the earliest. Fortune telling, singing, and general merriment might
round out this thoroughly enjoyable evening.
by Jeffery Roberts and Klasa Doroslych
St. Nicholas Day, December
6th (Sw. Mikolaja albo Mikolajki)
On that day in Poland, the youngsters are visited by
Sw. Mikolaj. In Poland, Sw. Mikolaj is not an oversized man with red
pompom topped cap, red Jacket, and riding boots. Instead, he is a saintly,
more dignified figure, dressed in the regal purple and gold robe, wearing
a cape and bishops hat, and carrying a crosier (a crooked staff, the
symbol of his bishop station). He travels the countryside on foot,
occasionally astride a white horse, blessing the children, and distributing
goodies to well behaved children and swishes (rozgi) to the naughty.
Sw. Mikolaj does not live at the North Pole, but up in Heaven.
by Jeffery Roberts and Klasa Doroslych
December sixth, St. Nicholas day Dzien Swietego
Mikolaja brought a slight reprieve to gray monotonous days,
especially to children, who felt that the Christmas Gwiazdka (star)
- would never come. St. Nicholas was revered because of his compassion
and love for orphans whom he often visited and comforted with little
gifts. His name is celebrated more in some Central European countries
than is Christmas itself.
The one selected to represent St. Nicholas was usually
driven in a sleigh to the homes in a Polish village. He was dressed
in a long white robe, wearing a tall head piece much like a bishop's
mitre, a long white flowing beard, and in his hand he held the shepherd's
The sound of snow bells and horses' hoofs could be heard
on the cobblestone pavement, while eager young faces with their noses
pressed to the window panes shouted, "he has come! he has come!" St.
Nicholas entered, filling the room with not only his presence, but
with his smile, the twinkle in his eye and his teasing booming voice.
He rebuked the mischievous, praised the obedient, listening
to the children recite their catechism and prayers, and passed around
heart shaped Pierniki, honey cookies, holy pictures and big red apples,
which he produced magically from under his cloak. In case St. Nicholas
could not make the visit personally, his gifts were placed under the
pillow during the night, which made children and parents sleepy the
next day from waiting and watching to be sure that the children were
sound asleep when St. Nicholas arrived!
From the PGST News Vol. X No.4 Winter 1993 by Stan
Wigilia or Wilia, from the Latin word vigilare to
watch, Czuwac in Polish, is reverently close to the heart of a Pole.
It is greeted with such mystical symbolism, that it is considered by
many to be a greater holiday than Christmas itself.
The very word Wigilia, which in Poland was formerly
known as the day before a feast day is now used only as the day before
Christ's birth. The Wigilia supper is so special there is no other
like it throughout the year. The day itself had significance many centuries
before Christ's birth. Since it followed the longest night and the
shortest day it was considered the last day of the year and the mystical
symbolism associated with it was closely tied to the solar system.
The severe cold weather and deep snows made family hold
their festivities near the hearth within family groups. This day became
known for generations to come as the holiday which strengthened family
ties. Some customs varied at different sections of Poland, but the
importance of the holiday was general in the whole country.
Another custom arising from the past, was the belief
that spirits pervaded the home on this day. Everything was to be made
as comfortable as possible for them and that this last day of the year
would prophesize everything that was to happen in the coming year.
From very early on, everyone was careful of conduct and observed everything
that occurred in the house, garden and heavens. The rules were to rise
early, say your prayers earnestly and carefully, wash thoroughly, dress
cleanly, and then peacefully and patiently attend to your work.
The first preparation for Christmas Eve began very early,
right after midnight. One of the young girls of the family went to
the nearest stream and brought back pails of water. The water was used
to sprinkle the cows in barn and also sprinkled on the family, awakening
them in this manner. It was believed that water on this day had the
power to heal and prevent illness. The entire family washed themselves
in this water in order to assure plenty of money for the rest of their
It was the responsibility of the males to go into the
forest and bring back boughs of fir and spruce to decorate the house
on this special day. Everyone hurried to be first to cut the top of
a spruce or fir and other branches. The top of the spruce or pine was
hung from a beam in the ceiling, with the tip facing down over the
table where the Wigilia was to be held.
In preparation of this most important meal of the year,
the table was first covered with straw or hay, and then with a white
tablecloth. On the best plate of the house, the blessed wafer or Oplatek
(Christmas wafer) was placed. In some areas of Poland, a loaf of common,
everyday bread was placed on top of it and topped with more Oplatek.
As the day began to darken and family members began
to ready themselves for the evening meal, a child was sent out to look
for the first star in the sky. With the appearance of the first star,
the Wigilia meal would begin. The belief was that those sitting down
to eat must add up to an even number. An odd number foretold that someone
would not live to the next Christmas Eve supper. To make up for this,
someone was always invited to make up the deficiency, be it honored
guest or wandering beggar.
Before approaching the Wigilia table, the family knelt
down on the floor and prayed together out loud, grateful for all the
blessings of the past year. At the conclusion of the prayer, the most
important ceremony of the night, sharing of the Oplatek, and the exchange
of wishes began. After everyone had an opportunity to share the wafer,
the supper could begin. Tradition dictates that this be a meatless
dinner, that there should be an uneven number of dishes served. In
the more well-to-do-homes this was 11 or 13, with 13 being the preferred
number as it represented the number that sat down at the Last Supper.
One of the traditional dishes was Kutia, which was served
in both the homes of the nobility and the serfs. The Kutia was made
from hulled barley or wheat, which was cooked and sweetened with honey.
Then mashed poppy seeds, raisins and nuts were added. The dish was
set down in a place of honor on a bench near the Wigilia table and
it was the first dish to be eaten. The rest of the meal reflected the
products of the family's labor, Barshch (Barszcz), a beet soup; dishes
made from beets, cabbage, sauerkraut, beans, noodles, dumplings, potatoes,
dried fruit, fresh apples, and nuts. Fish was served in the families
who could afford it.
Throughout all of Poland, the time after supper was
a time for the family to gather together to sing carols and exchange
gifts which were deposited by Aniolek, (an angel), under the Christmas
tree. The smoke from the candles on the tree, lit by the Gospodarz,
(head of the family) foretold the future. The period approaching midnight
was a magical time when animals talked and well water turned to wine
and everyone readied themselves to attend the midnight Mass of the
Shepherd or Pasterka. The Poles called it the Shepherd Mass, because
the shepherds were first to greet the new born Christ. Every able-bodied
individual trudged through freezing weather in the dark of the night,
or rode in sleighs to local churches by way of town streets or country
On their way to the Mass, they carefully observed the
heavens. If there were many stars, they rejoiced, for as many stars
as there were in the heavens, that many sheaves of grain would be harvested
the next year.
From the PGST News Vol. X No.4 Winter 1993 by Stan
Christmas Day (Boze
Boze Narodzenia, Christmas
Day, was considered so important a holiday that menial work of any
kind was not even thought of. This day was spent in comparative quiet
surroundings within the intimate family group. Christmas day had its
traditional menu, but there was no special number of courses. Ham and
Polish sausage were very popular, since pork had always been eaten
at special festivities. The old Polish literature testifies that Bigos, hunters
stew, was often used as the principal dish on Christmas Day. Cooking
included only the heating of previously prepared food.
Christmas day was the beginning of the twelve-day period
from Christmas which was called "Gody " These twelve
days were observed very carefully, for it was believed among the Polish
people that Christmas Day and each of the following eleven days foretold
the weather for the equivalent month of the year. The nights were also
part of the prognostication. If the day was fair but it rained or snowed
during the night, then it foretold that the first half of the month
would be fair but the second half would be damp.
The second day of the Christmas season (December 26)
was St. Stephan's Day, the traditional day of visiting and wishing
everyone the joy of the holiday season, a direct contrast to Christmas
Day. St. Stephan's Day marked the end of work contracts for the year;
new bargains were struck for the upcoming year. It was also the official
day for caroling to begin. The custom of caroling in Poland, or Chodzenie
Po Koledzie, began on St. Stephan's and lasted until the Feast
of the Purification on February 2.
Jaselka is the general name given to the two
forms of Christmas caroling called Szopka and Herody. Szopka was
a portable crib or manger scene carried by young boys from house to
house. This traveling mode of entertaining with caroling provided a
somewhat lucrative way of making money and/or receiving something sweet
to eat. Boys usually traveled with Szopka, staying within the
confines of their neighborhood, but sometimes moving outside into other
sections of town or even different villages. However humble or intricate,
the portable crib always portrayed the mysteries of the birth of the
The other form of Christmas caroling was Herody. This
was a live production done by a group of individuals, usually older
boys and young adults, about the last days of King Herod. The oldest
form of Christmas caroling in Poland was with the Turon. To
go caroling with Turon required that at least one of the participants
be dressed in some type of animal costume and mask. The custom of Turon
is named after the wild ox or tur, the largest and foremost of
the animals that were prolific at one time throughout Europe and caused
great damage to the villages.
By Stanley Garczynski from PGS of Texas Polish
Footprints Vol.XII No.4 Winter 1995
Feast Of the Three Kings
Although the story of the Three Kings is taken
from the apocryphal literature for which strict historical truth is
not assured, the love and respect held for these three wise men was
so strong, so universal, that the church also paid homage to them.
Wherever the initials K M B for Kaspar, Melchior and Baltazer, with
a cross between them, were seen written in chalk at the top of entrance
doors, it was evident to a wayfarer that a Catholic family lived there.
In areas like the mountainous regions where the priest
was not able to travel, people brought chalk to church on this day
to be blessed. Upon their return, they wrote the initials of the Three
Kings on the door themselves, not to be disturbed until the following
year. These initials written with blessed chalk, along with the palms
from Palm Sunday and blessed candles from Candlemas Day, were together
to be a force to avert disaster.
In remembrance of the star of Bethlehem that hung over
the manger the night of the birth of Christ and led the Three Kings
to the newborn King, young boys dressed as the Three Kings in long,
white pants with chasubles of black paper and paper crowns on their
heads. One of them carried a large homemade star on a long pole that
was lit from within by a candle, so that it could be seen in the dark
Their particular repertoire was to walk throughout the
village singing carols. One of the carolers played a musical instrument
to accompany their songs. They usually began at the manor house or
church rectory and made stops at various homes. They stopped before
a window and sang a carol. After obtaining permission to enter the
house, the boys sang both religious and popular Christmas carols. The Three
Kings day was also the traditional day to take down the Christmas
Tree, which was erected and decorated on Christmas Eve.
by Stanley Garczynski from PGS of Texas Polish
Footprints Vol.XII No.4 Winter 1995
Polish Easter Customs
(Polskie Tradycje Wielkanocne)
Easter observances in Poland actually begin on Ash Wednesday,
when "kocanki" or "bazie" are cut and placed in
water. When their buds open in a few days, this is regarded as
a good omen
for fair and mild spring.
These willow twigs are used on Palm Sunday as "palms" to
be blessed in the church. Then they are taken home and placed by the
holy picture of the Blessed Mother, and remain there until the next
Throughout the Holy Week until the blessing of the fires
on Holy Saturday, the Poles are engaged in traditional Easter activities.
Starting on Palm Sunday, the girls will begin gathering
eggs, which will become "pisanki". One method of accumulating
their needed supply is to take a small spruce tree and decorate it
attractively. Then at dawn on Palm Sunday, they will carry the tree
from one house to another. The girls knock on the windows and sing
songs in praise of their spruce tree. Sleepy husbands and wives arise
and give them a gift of eggs.
Polish Easter customs have not changed much during the
centuries. To this day, eggs are a major item at Easter. Eggs are blessed.
Eggs are artistically painted in various lovely and intricate patterns,
and different sections of Poland are noted for their special designs.
Matins are observed in churches on Wednesday of the
Holy Week. After each psalm is sung, a candle light is extinguished
to signify the sorrow over the torture of Christ.
On Thursday of the Holy Week, there is a ceremonial
washing of the feet of twelve impoverished old men at the church, in
memory of the Last Supper. This ceremony is a reminder of the humility
with which Christ washed the feet of his disciples. In olden days,
Polish kings performed this rite. Today, the bishops and their
priests do this.
On Good Friday, in some houses mirrors are covered with
black cloth and parents wake their children with twigs, whispering
the words of a Lent prayer "The wounds of God". Nothing was
eaten all day except a little bread and water.
Starting on Good Friday and through Saturday, every
one visits the various churches in town to view Christ's sepulchers
so beautifully and artistically arranged and bathed in flowers. There
is much pageantry in this church ritual, with the life–size image of
the stricken Savior lying in a grotto, guarded night and day by priests
and faithful worshippers. The church bells silenced on Thursday, Friday,
and Saturday, are now rung on Saturday at midnight in noisy celebration
heralding the risen Lord.
On Holy Saturday afternoon, the mother of the family
or an older child carries a basket filled with eggs, hams, sausage,
pastries and Easter seasonings to be blessed by the parish priest.
Lent ends Saturday noon, but fasting is observed until
Resurrection Mass. Also on Holy Saturday typically Polish ceremonies
are performed in the church yard. It is the blessing of the fire, the
reverence which goes back to pagan times.
Old fire in the house is put out, then a large bonfire
is made in the churchyard. The people wait for the priest to bless
it, then each person takes a flaming piece of wood from the fire and
hurriedly carries it home. The resin in the wood keeps the fire aglow
and people keep waving these wooden torches in the wind to keep the
fire intact until they get home. Then they kindle new fires in their
home, to signify the renewal of faith and greeting of the spring.
In every house, from the richest to the poorest, the
table is spread with food that is blessed on Holy Saturday. The Easter
table will be covered with a white tablecloth. The white tablecloth
is indicative of the white swaddling cloth with which Our Lord was
wrapped when he was placed in the Holy Sepulcher. There must always
be a roasted pig's head decked with flowers, ham, veal and the famous
Polish sausage strongly flavored with garlic. In the middle of the
table is a lamb holding a cross which is made of sugar. On the Polish
Easter table there is also a great number of cakes made in special
shapes – tall iced babki, flat and thin kolacze, and the most delicious
mazurki flavored with lemon and dried fruit. The blessed eggs, the
symbol of life, are sliced into pieces, and each person present takes
a piece of egg and wishes each other good health, prosperity, and happiness
for the coming year.
The Easter season in Poland ends on Monday when the
traditional "dyngus–smigus" custom is observed. The
young people break the solemnity of Easter by a burst of frivolity.
They visit from house to house singing songs, playing pranks, and merrymaking.
After getting the girls out of their beds, the boys
will douse them with water. On Tuesday, the girls are supposed to reciprocate
in kind. They visit the boys and sprinkle them with water. The
origin of this custom is unknown. Some say it is a pagan tradition
handed down from the earliest settlers in Poland.
by Jeffery Roberts and Klasa Doroslych
There is one day in the year when the consumption of
water in Poland shoots up. This is Easter Monday, and it is due to
an ancient custom which is still observed both in villages and cities.
It is a delightful tradition, Dyngus or Smigus as this custom is called.
There are two versions: one amiable and elegant when it is only a matter
of a gentle sprinkling with water or scent, the other quite merciless
when whole bucketfuls come into play.
The custom of pouring water is an ancient spring rite
of cleansing, purification, and fertility. The pagan Poles bickered
with nature Dingen by means of pouring water and switching
with willows to make themselves pure and worthy of the coming year.
Tradition also states that the first Polish ruler Prince Mieszko The
First (960-992), along with his court was baptized on Easter Monday
The first recorded Polish writing on Dyngus dates back
to the Middle Ages. A Polish historian wrote of what he called the
Oblewania. "It is the universal custom, among the common masses
as well as among the distinguished, for men to soak the women on Easter
Monday. On Tuesday, and every day thereafter until the time of the
Green Holidays Pentecost the women doused the men."
Dyngus began somewhat around five in the morning, and
the custom demanded that the house where the women slept be secretly
invaded. The men crept through a window or through a chimney. Sometimes
the male head of the house himself, in collusion with the perpetrators,
let the men into the house himself to have his women folk abruptly
awakened and doused liberally with water. The spirit of Dyngus is described
in this lively description from the Poznan region during 1800s:
"Barely had the day dawned on Easter Monday when
I woke the boys and gathered some water to start throwing it on the
girls. Up with the Piwezyny! (eiderdown)! There was screaming, shouting,
and confusion. The girls are shrieking and hollering, but in their
hearts they are glad because they know that she who isn't gotten wet
will not be married that year. And the more they are annoyed, the more
we dump water on them calling, Dyngus Smigus! Then we had to
change our clothes because there wasn't a dry thread on the girls and
we boys were not better off."
From the PGST News Vol. XI No.1 Spring 1994 by Stan
Wesele The Wedding
The wedding is one of the most important family celebrations.
These short moments of joy in the difficult life of peasantry follow
many traditional customs before young couple exchange the wedding rings.
First, the engagement period Zareczyny or Zrekowiny. The main event
on the night of engagement was the tying together of the hands of the
couple to be married. There were numerous variations on this custom,
but in whatever form it appeared, the central elements were an uncut
loaf of bread and a white towel or scarf. Because engagement was as
binding as the marriage itself, it was always done in a public act
in front of family and friends who acted as witnesses. Starosta (an
intermediary) joined the right hands of the couple above the bread,
tied them together with white cloth, and made the sign of the cross
over their joined hands representing "the joined endeavors of
the man and woman to prepare the bread that they always have
bread beneath their hands.
Then there were Oprosiny or Zaprosiny (the invitations).
Wedding traditions demanded that guests be invited in a certain obligatory
manner. First, invitations were issued to relatives or friends to act
as groomsmen or bridesmaids. The bride and groom then went to invite
their godparents. In some sections of Poland old custom forbade the
exclusion of anyone in the village from being invited to the wedding.
On the wedding day it was customary to have musicians
playing as the wedding guest began arriving at the Dom Weselny (wedding
home). On seeing a guest approaching they would begin to play, for
which they were sometimes rewarded with a small tip.
When the groom arrived with his Starosta, groomsman
and family members, the maid of honor began dressing the bride. Everyone
would gather at the home of the bride to accompany the bridal couple
to the church, but also to witness the blessing and symbolic farewells
of the bride with her parents, relatives, and friends. The blessing
by the parents were seen as more important than the church ceremony
itself. After the receiving of the blessing, everyone stood in a circle
around the couple and the mother blessed them with holy water. The
blessings were so important that, if a mother or father had died, the
wedding party would stop at the cemetery where the groom or bride asked
for a blessing from the deceased parent
The trip to the church took place in various ways, with
the bride and groom riding together or in separate wagons. Usually
several horse wagons with stately horses and guests dressed in their
Sunday best with bouquets of flowers pinned to their heads,
followed them. pulling a wagon on which stood the driver, cracking
his whip for everyone to get out of his way. Behind him were a fiddler
and double base player playing a merry tune. Behind the wagon, on horseback,
rode the master of ceremonies, the Starosta and the best man with a
bottle of vodka who alternately offered it to the wagon driver. Everyone
sang the bridesmaids, the groomsman, the musicians and the wagon
During the church ceremony it was expected of the bride
to cry. If she didn't it was believed that she would cry throughout
her married life. In some parts of Poland, the bride and groom took
bread with them which had been given them during blessings. Leaving
the church ceremony, the bride sometimes threw handfuls of straw on
the young boys and girls who followed the wedding party. Whoever it
landed on was prophesied to marry before the others. Another belief
was that whichever one of the bridesmaids touched the bride or her
wreath first after the marriage would marry that year.
When the newlyweds, followed by the wedding party and
invited guests, finally arrived to the Dom Weselny (wedding home),
they found the door closed to them. The Starosta sang a song to open
up and the door was opened by the mother who stood before the stoop,
sprinkling the married couple with holy water.
In customs that can be documented back to the sixteenth
century, the young couple was most often greeted at the entrance of
the house with bread and salt. Salt had equal footing with bread in
all family customs from birth to death. It was believed that salt had
the power to heal and cleanse, uncover thieves, protect houses against
fire, dispel storms and hail, and drive away evil spirits.
The wedding feast also followed established traditions.
The couple always sat at the table which was located along the wall
containing holy pictures. First to be placed on the tables were bottles
of vodka and beer, and the wedding banquet began with "Zapicie",
i.e., to wash down or to drink. This was done with one glass which
traveled from hand to hand. During the drinking, everyone wished one
another good health and fortune, kissed one another and if moved, sang
patriotic songs. The crowd ate, drank and danced. If a father could
afford it, the wedding sometimes lasted three days.
On the last night of the wedding, the most important
wedding custom of all took place. The custom was called Oczepiny. It
was the moment when the Czepek the cap of married woman was
placed upon the head at her wedding celebration. It was so essential
and played such a vital roll in wedding activities that where other
customs have disappeared altogether, the Oczepiny has survived to this
day. In old Poland, it was so significant that only after the Oczepiny,
and not the church ceremony, that the man exercised his marriage privileges
towards his new wife. The marriage cap was usually a gift to the bride
from her godmother. This cap was always held as special and reserved
for wear to church, for special folk festivals, and on her death, for
From the PGST News Vol. XI No.2 Summer 1994 by Stan