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Tajenko

A village and manorial farmstead on the eastern shore of Lake Tajno, Szczuczyn county, Pruska gmina, Barglow parish. In 1827 there were 30 houses, 179 inhabitants. In 1866 the Tajenko manorial farmstead had an area of 1,150 morgs: 180 of farmland and gardens, 150 of meadows, 240 of forests, 300 of thickets, 280 unused. The village of Tajenko has 29 settlements, 143 morgs. [No author named ].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892, Volume 12, page 144.

Translated by William F. Hoffman, Fall 2002 Rodziny.

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Tajno

A village, Szczuczyn county, Pruska gmina, Barglow parish. It lies about 2 milas [about 15 km.] southeast of Rajgrod, on the northern shore of the lake of the same name, in a wooded and swampy region. It has an elementary school, gmina office, 95 settlements, 948 inhabitants, and 2,293 morgs of land. In 1827 there were 72 houses, 434 inhabitants. The Tajno starostwo, unaffiliated with a grod, was in Podlaskie province, Bielsk district, according to Treasury lists from 1771. It was owned by Anna Rostkowska, who paid a kwarta of 2,289 zlp., 14 groszy, and a hyberna of 611 zlp., 24 groszy. At the 1773-1775 Sejm the States of the Commonwealth bestowed this estate in emphyteutic possession upon Krzysztof Frankowski, delegate of Zakroczym district. At that time the estate included Tajno and the villages of Barglowka, Lipowe, Nowiny, Wozna, Orzechowka, Polkowe, Piekutowo, and Uscianka. [Br{onislaw} Ch{lebowski}.]

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892, Volume 12, page 145.

Translated by William F. Hoffman, Fall 2002 Rodziny.

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Tarnobrzeg

A town and county seat in Galicia, on the right bank of the Wisla [Vistula]; it has a station of the Nadbrzezie-Debica railroad, and is 71 km. northeast of Debica. A highway runs through the town from Debica to where the San flows into the Wisla, and continues along the left bank of the San to Jaroslaw. Tarnobrzeg is 173 meters above sea level, and towers to some extent over the sandy plain from which it rises. The town’s northern part, with the beautiful castle of Count Jan Tarnowski, forms the separate gmina of Dzikow.

The town does not have a parish church (it belongs to the parish in the neighboring village of Miechocin), only a Dominican church and monastery founded in 1676 by Jan Stanisl. Amor Tarnowski and his wife Zofia Barbara z Dabrowicy nee Firlej. In the church is an image of the Blessed Mother, transferred from the castle in Dzików and recognized as miraculous by Krakow bishop Trzebicki in 1675. This picture was trans-ferred in a ceremony on 20 May 1678. Since then a procession has been held sev-eral times a year from the monastery to the castle.
In early November 1734 the agreement of the Confederation of Tarnogród, designed to keep Stanislaw Leszczynski on the throne against August III, was signed in Dzikow castle. This beautiful Gothic castle, which is well maintained, holds many relics of the past, works of art, and a sizable li-brary, rich in old Polish prints. These collections were assembled by Stanislaw Jan Feliks Tarnowski (1779,   1872).


The town itself occupies 124.1 hectares and numbers 2,460 inhabitants: 960 Roman Catholics, 13 Greek Catholics, 2 Protestants, and 2,475 Jews. It consists primarily of wooden houses. In the town is the office of the starosta [local administrative official] with a building and tax department, the county court, a tax office, a postal and telegraph office, and a 4-grade elementary school. Autonomous authorities are a county council and a district school board. Two doctors are permanent residents of the town, and there is a pharmacy, as well as several shops. A loan society works to facilitate credit; in 1889 its return came to 152,097 Rhenish zlotys. Markets are held every Wednesday. The gmina administration consists of the mayor, his assistant, a secretary, and a police inspector.

The history of the town is unknown. The whole area of this county—covering part of the river-basin of the right bank of the Wisla and of the San, which flows into it—comprises a wet lowland covered with the great Sandomierz forest, and was not populated until quite late. That is why it was primarily large properties that devel-oped here.

Colonization advances along the banks of the Wisla and the San. Baranow, on the Wisla, became a town as early as the 14th century, and Radomysl nad Sanem in 1556. The first parish churches were in Miechocin on the Wisla in 1326 and Baranow in 1440. We owe the colonization of the area mainly to several powerful fami-lies who are its proprietors by way of royal grants. In the mid-16th century the main landowners were: the Mieleckis (Mikolaj, Podolia voivode, and Hieronim), the Tarnowskis (Stanislaw, Radom castellan as of 1578), and Andrzej Leszczynski (in Baranow). The Pokrzywnica monastery (on the left bank of the Wisla) owns the village of Nagnajow [Editor: today Pokrzywnica is called Koprzywnica]. Nadbrzezie is a settlement on the outskirts of Sandomierz. Jakub Siemienski founded Radomysl nad Sanem. According to 1578 tax registers Stanislaw Tarnowski owned property in Dzikow. How long the period of forest life lasted, is attested by registers from 1578 that list as a separate category of the rural populace “venatores” [Latin, “hunters”]. In Chmielow (not far from Tarnobrzeg) 34 of them were located on 10 lans, and in other villages each had even more.

The church in Dzikow dates from the end of the 17th century. Registers from 1662 do not mention Tarnobrzeg, which surely was a settlement on the outskirts of Dzikow. The historian Dlugosz (in Liber beneficiorum) knows and describes the adjacent communities of Dzikow and Mokrzyszow, and also Miechocin, but does not mention Tarnobrzeg. Craftsmen and merchants settling near the lord’s residence in Dzikow gave rise to the settlement that at the beginning of the current century was still a small marketplace (a Markt per the Post-Lexikon of Crusius, 1802). Echard’s Slownik and Plater’s Geografia say nothing of Tarnobrzeg. The name of the settlement is surely an ancient term for one of the areas around Dzikow, and is related in form to names “(river) bank,” and Tarno- is from the name of the town’s founder, Count Tarnowski].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892.

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Fall 2002 Rodziny.

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Tomaszewo

Current administrative location: Tomaszewo, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Tomaszewo, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A peasant colony located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. It belongs to the Łowiczek Parish. There are 7 settlements, 58 inhabitants, and the area of land totals 112 morgs. The Tomaszewo colony is included in the Łowiczek estate.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.370].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Toporów

Toporów, village, Mielec county, (7 kilometers east of Mielec), at the headspring of the Babulówka stream (flowing into the Wisla). The small clearing is surrounded on all sides by pine forest, remnants of the virgin forest of Sandomierz. A Roman Catholic parish in Ostrówy Tuszowskie, with which it borders on the east. The nearest village to the south is Przylek, to the northwest Szydlowiec. Toporów has 57 houses, 186 Roman Catholic inhabitants. The larger estate (owned by Karolina, countess of Tarnów) consists of 10 mórgs of farmland, 3 mórgs of pasture land, 278 mórgs 60 sazen of woodland. The lesser domain has 188 mórgs of farmland, 6 mórgs of meadows and pasture land and 3 mórgs of forest. We first encountered this settlement in the list of villages from 1662, as belonging to the parish in Melee (Pawinski, Malopolska 55a). During this time there arose amidst the forest region the neighboring settlements of: Olszyny, Cyranka, Komorów and Szydlowiec.

Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski and Ludwik Dziedzicki

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Volume XII, Page 399 -
Warsaw 1892.

Submitted by: Anthony Paddock, 5015 Birney Ave., Moosic, PA 18507

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Toporzyskko

Toporzysko, a village, in the district of Myslenice, stretches along a long street with scattered cottages (huts) on a stream (a left tributary of the Skawa river), by the road from Jordanow (5.3 kilometers) to Podwilk (a village to the SW) on the Hungarian border. Another road through this mountain village leads the way to Sidzina (southwest of Toporzysko). The parish church is in Jordanow Parish. Including the manor’s area, the village has 186 homes and 1,082 inhabitants; 1,075 are Roman Catholic and 7 inhabitants are Jewish. The major estate has a tavern (public house), sawmill, brick-kiln and manorial farm, it is composed of 293 morgs (In Galicia 1 morg = 1.422 acres) of farmland, 34 of meadows, 3 of gardens, 14 in pastureland, 495 of forest, 7 morgs of a pond, 1 morg and 1,446 sazen (saien, sqien) of building parcels. The minor estate has 1,623 morgs of fields, 67 of meadow, 331 of pastureland and 125 of forest. It has a mountainous soil, good for oats, a rough climate, and spruce forests. In the year 1581 the village (Toporzysko) belonged to the parish in Letowni; It had 35 peasant half lans, (lan is a fullsized farm) 3 zagrodas (small farmstead with courtyard) with land, 1 zagroda without land, 8 komorik (tenant farmer) with cattle, 5 komorik without cattle, a craftsman, and a quarter of the lans are desserted, 1 lan belonging to the village administrator. (Pawinski, Malopolskie, p. 46). Most recently it (Toprozysko) was owned by the Wilkoszewski family.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - volume 12, Page 402, Warsaw 1892.

Translated by John Rys, Woodbury MN. Edited by Fred Hoffman in PGSA Rodziny, Summer 2005.

Family surname of interest: Rys

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Toporzyszczewo

Current administrative location: Toporzyszczewo, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Toporzyszczewo, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A village and folwark (manor farm) are located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. It belongs to the Bądkowo Parish. Toporzyszczewo is a distance of 12 verst from Nieszawa. It has 196 inhabitants. In 1827, there were 12 houses with 149 inhabitants.

In 1875, the Toporzyszczewo folwark's land area was 1123 morgs: 832 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 29 morgs of meadows, 152 morgs of forest, 2 morgs of water, 88 morgs of waste area, and 21 morgs of barren land. There were 5 brick buildings, 2 wooden buildings, and uninhabited forests.

The village of Toporzyszczewo has 47 settlements on 85 morgs of land. In 1557, according to the nearby regency in powiat Brześć, Toporzyszczewo had 8 łan of land that included 9 tenant farms and 3 crofts.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.402].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Trl~ag

Village with church, district of Mogilno, deanary of Znin, on an anonymous lake, opposite the estuary of the Motec River to the Mala Koluda Lake, 10 km. S from Pakosc, in equal distance from Strzelno, Mogilno and Kwieciszewo, 92 meters above the sea level, borders with Broniewice in N, Paluczyn and Kolodziejewo in W, Korytkowo in S, The E border is the lake.  Catholic church in village, Protestant in Mogilno, Post office and railway station in Janikowo (Amsee), 4 km away at the other side of the lake.

The Trlag lake mentioned in doc's from 1249, in 1329 mentioned a Trzebislaw of Trlag, being a church prelate from Gniezno, Plock and Kruszwica.

Andrzej of Trlag living about 1350, was father of Stefan, Jan and Wojciech. Stefan went to France in 1373 to find Wladyslaw the White, Prince of Gniewkowo, after 1376 he was a Poznan official, after 1398 in Kalisz.

Jan, who was a prelate in Plock was recommented by Pope Gregory IX for a Gniezno church official. He was also the archdeacon in Kruszwica, died 1398. Wojciech mentioned in 1379. In 1408 he was an official in Kalisz, he divided the possessions with his brother Stefan and acquired Stary Trlag along with the large lake and a village Suchodol (not existent anymore) and parcels in adjacent village Broniewice and Gawlowice (not identified).

Stefan acquired Nowy Trlag, Stare Kolodziejewo and neighboring Sedowo, Niemczyn and Starezyn in the Paluki region, Osiek, Niezuchowo and Jeziorki in the Naklo area. Between 1404 and 1415 there was a Jan of Trlag, the Gniezno official and in 1436 the owner of Trlag was an Adam.

In 1579 there are Modlibog, Andrzej Koludzki and the Trleski family in Trlag and 2 poorer owners. In 1595 there is a Marcin Trleski, coat of arms: Topor, the official from Inowroclaw. In 1620 there were no Trleski anymore. Anna Modlibogowa had then 3.5 (land units) and 4 poor peasants, half of a fisher, half of a handworker, the other half of those people belonged to Jan Modlibog, along with 3 (land units), 4 poor peasants and a mill. By the end of the last century Trlag belonged to the Zagajewski family who lost it after 1840.

The St. Peter & Paul church had already existed in 1379, the founders were the possessors Stefan and Wojciech of Trlag. The present church built of brick also dates back very far as some of the edifice features confirm.

About 1590 the church belonged to the Protestant sect 'Czech Brethren', their minister was Pawel Patiens. The perish consisted of Suchodol and Wierzejewice, the latter were abandonned. Dobieszewice and Wierzejewice gave their church tax to Kierzkowo and Suchodol to Wenecja. The present parish has 1400 people and it consists of: Augustowo, Broniewice, Debowo, Dobieszewice, Dobieszewiczki, Kolodziejewo, Kolodziejewko, Korytkowo, Mikolajkowo, Paluszyn, Poczekaj, Sosnowiec, Trlag, Twierdzin and Wierzejewice. There used to be a canonic title of the church, that was abolished by Archb. Raczynski in 1810.

The first priest known was Adam Swinka bef. 1412, the last one Kajetan Kowalski. The village, still called Trlag has 27 houses, 319 inhabitants (280 Cath. 39 Prot.) and 801 hectars (704 of fields, 38 of meadows, 15 of forest). The manor renamed 'Seehorst' about 1870 stands in the middle of the village and has 4 houses, 79 inh. (60 Cath. 19 Prot.) and 269-30 hectars (140 of fields, 10 of meadows, 1 of bush, 2-70 not used, 114-68 of waters); the revenue from the manor is 2627 Marks.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892

Submitted by: Patricia Smith, 928 Turkey Inn Rd., Ligonier, PA 15658 (May 1998)

Translated by: Lukasz Bielecki

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Trzaski

Current administrative location: Trzaski, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Trzask, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

1) In 1583, it was known as Trzaskowy Dolne. An estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 5 kilometers southeast of Inowrocław, where there is a parish, post office and railway station. It is situated between the villages of Jaronty and Komaszyce. It is near the Fryderyk (Frederick) Canal that connects the Tązyne and the Noteci rivers for about 82.3 meters (this sentence of the translation could be erroneous). There is a school located in Trzaski. There are 6 houses with 110 inhabitants (72 Catholics and 38 Protestants) and 214.95 hectares of land (188.37 hectare of farmland, 18 hectare of pasture, and 7.73 hectare of unused barren land). Trzaski produces an income of 2513 marks. The current property owner of the Trzaski estate is the Trzaskowski family.

In 1583, there was a 3 łan settlement, 2 crofts, and 1 tenant farmer without cattle.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.537].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Trzebos

It is located at 50 degrees 14' north latitude and 22 degrees 07' east longitude.

Trzebos, together with parts of the village: Budy and Podlesie. District of Kolbuszowa. Located in the sandy broad valley of Vistula covered with pine forest. Height - 220 meters over the sea niveau. Lies on the Trzebosna creek which has its estuary to the San River, by the road from Sokolow (4 km) to Zolynia. The village is densely built (313 houses). An isolated part Budy (24 houses) lies on the Olchowiec creek, SE from Trzebos. Podlesie (52 houses) lies East to the village. The wooden church (built in 1795, founded by Maria Grabinska) lies in the center of the village. Next to it, there is the school. Together with the isolated parts and the manor the village has 391 houses and 1944 inhabitants.(942 male, 1002 fem., 1905 RCath & 39 Jews). The manor, possessed by Jan Zamoyski is 387 morg (unit of area) large. There are 5 inns and one brewery in the village. The parish church belongs to the deanery of Lezajsk and it comprises also the villages of Katy Brzozanskie and Katy Rakszawskie. There is a rural bank in the village - its capital is 3448 rubles. The village borders are: to the east with Rakszawa, to the west with Nienadowka, to the south with Medynia & to the north with Wolka Niedzwiedzka and Sokolowka.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, Warsaw 1892

Submitted by:Mary B. Wilson, P.O. Box 777, Fellsmere, FL 32948 (May 1997)

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Trzebuska

A village in Kolbuszowa powiat, in a sandy plain, 4 km. southwest of Sokolo w, it has two has two settlements: Zmyslow and Katy [Trzebuskie]. It is built on a street alongside the road to Ranizo w. Along with the manorial estate (which has 8 houses and 94 inhabitants), it has 245 houses and 1,241 inhabitants (640 men, 601 women), 1,198 Roman Catholics, 3 Protestants and 41 Jews. The settlement of Katy has 41 houses and 212 inhabitants; Zmyslow has 9 houses and 40 inhabitants. The major estate (owned by Jan Wl. Count Zamoyski) has two manorial farmsteads and 530 mo rgs of farmland, 49 of meadows, 5 of gardens, 16 of pasturage, 1,106 of woods, 3 unused, and 3 of building lots. The village has a public school and a district loan association with a capital of 1645 zlr. It is served by the Roman Catholic parish in Sokolo w, which borders it on the north; Trzebos borders it on the east, Nienadowka on the south, and to the west, through the woods, Hucisko. Br[onislaw] Ch[leboski].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, vol. 12, p. 564, Warsaw 1892

Submitted by: Fred Hoffman (Nov 1997)

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Trześń

Trzesn, also known as Trzesnia, village in the district of Kolbuszowa, lies in a sandy and forested plain, 9 kilometers west of Kolbuszowa, at the headspring of the so-called Swierczówka River (also called Olszaniec or Przyrwa) flowing into the Leg River. The highway from Kolbusowa to Rzemieñ on the Wisloka River runs through the village. There is a Roman Catholic parish in Niwiska. Together with the major estate holder (Karol Hippman), the village is comprised of 69 houses with 395 residents, 381 Roman Catholics and 4 Jews. The overall territory is comprised of 238 mórgs of farm land, 64 mórgs of meadows, 2 mórgs 722 fathoms of gardens, 23 mórgs of pasture land, 342 mórgs of forests, 2 mórgs of barren land and 1 mórg of 378 fathoms of developed parcels; the lesser domain is comprised of 381 mórgs of farm land, 53 mórgs of meadows and gardens, 137 mórgs of pasture land and 44 mórgs of forests. The community loan association has ../assets of 516 Rhineland zloty.

In 1581 (Pawinski, Little Poland, 255) Trzesnia, in the parish of Weryn (today Kolbuszowa), was owned by Stanislaw Tarnowski and it numbered 19 peasants, 1.5 lans and 2 tenant farmers without cattle. Trzesnia borders on the north with Siedlanka, on the south with Hucisko, on the east with Nowa Wies and Zapole, and on the west with Niwiska. Volume XII, Pages 575-576, #3

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, vol. 12, pps. 575-576 #3, Warsaw 1892

Submitted by Anthony Paddock (Dec 2003)

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Tuchow

 Tuchow - a small town, in Tarnow powiat, on the Biala river, on rail line and the highway from Tarnow (21 kilometers away) to the county seat of Grybow. Predominantly built up with single story homes, it lies on the left bank of the Biala river, which curves in this area to surround Tuchow on the west and north; the altitude is 237 meters above sea level. The terrain rises to an altitude of 343 meters above sea level to the east and 300 meters to the west. On the right bank of the Biala, the homes are scattered, creating a suburb with a rural look. The highway leads eastward to Ryglice and Brzostek. On the left side of the river stands the parish church (from the year 1460); on the right is what was originally a parish church, and later, up to the year 1810, a monastery. In the city is a county court, a railway station, a post office and telegraph (office),a people's 4 class school, the gmina offices, tax and notary offices,a doctor and several shops. In 1865 the gmina established a loan society for craftsmen (loans up to 50 zlr.). A hospital or home for invalids, of unknown origin, possesses a building and 1651 zlr. [Translator's Note: zlr. stands for zloty renski, the former German and Austro-Hungarian florin. A powiat was roughly equivalent to our "county," a gmina was a rural administrative district, a subdivision of a powiat.]

 The town itself, in 1880, had 177 homes, and 1179 inhabitants; if one includes the suburbs, it had 385 homes and 2337 inhabitants (1090 men, 1247 women) - 2062 Roman Catholics, 10 Greco-Catholics (Orthodox) and 265 Jews. According to the 1890 census, there were 390 homes, 479 farms, and 2365 inhabitants. A chart from 1891 gives different figures: 2506 inhabitants, that is, 2290 Roman Catholics, 6 Greco-Catholics and 210 Jews. The town covers a surface area of 2138 morgs. Functioning estate, 129,475 zlr., inactive 1235 zlr. The majority estate (belonging to Wlad. Rozwadowski) has 6 inns, a mill, and a grange, 463 morgs of fields, 13 of meadows, 3 of gardens, 17 morgs and 131 sazens of pastureland, 249 morgs and 815 sazen's of woods, 2 unusable morgs, and 1410 sazen's of building lots, for a total of 748 morgs. The minor estate has 1027 morgs of farmland, 65 of meadows and gardens, 131 of pastureland, and 59 of woods. [Translator's Note: in Austrian Poland] morg = .575464 hectares, 1 sazen = 2.1336 meters, but these values varied from one place to another and it is difficult to know for sure exactly which is meant in a given text.]

After the abolition of the Benedictine monastery and transfer of the Tuchow estates to government ownership, they were sold at auction. In recent times (about 1889), these estates, consisting of 22 farmsteads and 9360 acres of forest, were owned by Baron Hirsch. In the 11th century Tuchow belonged to the abbots of Tyniec, for it is mentioned in the confirmation of privileges of the Tyniec monastery by Cardinal Idzi in the year 1105. In the year 1341 Casimir the Great allowed the abbots to establish a city and transferred it from Polish law to that of Magdeburg. (Codex of Tyniec, issued in Lwow in 1871, page 76). The city was to have 60 Frankish lans. Besides the usual rights bestowed upon wojts, the abbot received one slab of salt, and should there be more slabs, the king reserved these for himself. In addition, he received the right to collect one grzywna every Saturday, if a slab of salt had been extracted and the salt hauled away (Berkrecht) [Translator's Note: this is presumably the German term Bergrecht, "law governing mine," or perhaps "(the King's) mining rights"]. The salt inspectors were to employ the same laws as those of Wieliczka and Bochnia.  

The city developed on the left bank of the river; the wooden church stood in the village on the right bank. Therefore, in the year 1456, the abbots obtained from Callistus III permission to unite the pastorate with the monastery, and when the last secular pastor Daniel died, the parish was transferred to the church in the city (date of construction unknown) and entrusted to the monks, who established a priory at the former church. They combined the parish's endowment with the priory's, leaving the parish meager income. Dlugosz complains of this, charging the abbot with violating the regulation of St. Benedict, changing the monks and hermits into residents and secular priests. At the time, there were in Tuchow 17 lans owned by residents, from which tithes were paid with wheat or oats, or money. The value of the tithes was 6 grzywnas, 18 measures of wheat, and as much of oats. The abbot had a manse and a predium from which 4 grzywnas were given as tithes to the pastorate. The soltys had 2 fields, from which he paid a tithe to the parish. The tenants of the city gave one grosz to the pastor at Christmas; those of the village, ? grosz. [Translator's Note: the grzywna and grosz were coins ? it is difficult to approximate their value in terms that make sense today. A lan is literally a "field," but was also a measurement of acreage, a Frankish lan was 43.2 morgs, according to Gerald Ortell's book Polish Parish Records of the Roman Catholic Church: Their Use and Understanding in Genealogical Research, PGSA 1996 ? a book which, incidentally, would be very helpful to anyone trying to make sense of all this.] 

In addition, the townspeople paid the room and board of the schoolmaster. To the pastor belonged a field of three parts. From the gardens, the townspeople each paid the abbots rents of 1 grzywna and 2 groszy; some paid 2 grzywnas and 8 groszy each; from the pastures, they gave 2 quarts of honey. The slaughter houses brought 2 grzywnas less 6 groszy and 7 stones [a measure of weight] of tallow, the spa 2 grzywnas, and the fish houses, shops of salt, and the cobblers - 3 grzywnas and 8 groszy. The soltys collected the rents, from which he withheld every sixth donar (a coin value), and beyond that, had 2 water mills (Dlugosz, Liber Beneficiorum, III, 199). 

The following belonged to the parish in Dlugosz's day: Siedliska, Dabrowa, Beschwoschowa (Bistuszowa), Burzyn, Meszna, Libuszowa or Lube (Lubassowa), Buchcice, Kolanowice and Piotrkowice with a branch church. In 1536 (Pawinski, Malopolska, 548), the taxmasters expressed themselves thus: 

THUCHOW- the city of the reverend abbot of Tyniec. The inhabitants and nearby residents have fields in it, from which they pay rent of 15 grzywnas, 2 groszy and 7 denars, 72 bushels of oats; from the baths, the slaughterhouses, the cobblers, bakery shops and salt stores; likewise, from the fuller (cloth maker) flow 32 grzywnos, 30? groszy, 200 chickens and nothing more; a Manse, a good Predium, 2 good ponds and 2 abandoned ones, a mill, a stamp trough of which they rate the income at 30 grzywnas, a forest adequate for their needs. On the day of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin [2 February], an income from the inhabitants and the nearby residents is 30 grzywnas. Buchcice and Meszna belonged to the parish. 

Judging by highway paid off in 1581 (Ibid., 266), Tuchow was smaller than Strzyzin, Tarnow, Pilzno, and Ropczyce, bigger than Brzostek, Debica, Zochow. 62 florins were paid for the road from the city, 10 from the city's fields, 8 from tenants, 27 from craftsmen, 5 from butchers, 5 from distillers, 4 from the mill, 2 from peddlers, for a total of 67 florins and 24 groszy

In 1627 the provost of the Benedictines, Sebastian Pilsz built a new brick church, which burned down in 1789. The current one was built, at personal cost, by Provost Odo Kontenlowicz. The construction lasted from 1791 to 1800. In 1864 the Pastor-canon Stanislaus Zabierzewski remodeled and repainted it. The abbots resided in the manor, and collected income from Tuchow, Lubaszowa, Meszna Opacka, Brzozowa and Brzostek. The last abbot was Florian Amand Janowski, appointed bishop of Tarnow in 1786. Up till 1810 the Benedictines ran the parish, after which the estate was confiscated and finally sold. At present the following belong to the parish (in Tuchow deanery): Joniny, Kowalowy, Uniszowa, Bistuszowa and Kielanowice. 

Tuchow is bordered on the south by Siedlisko and Kielanowice; on the west by Meszna Opacka and Szlackecka; on the north by Garbek and Karwodrza; on the east by Zalaszowa and Uniszowa.

Source: Slownik geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego i innych krajow slowianskich

Submitted by: Martin C. Mazurk, 857 Euclid, Elmhurst, Il 60126.

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Tuliszko~w

Tuliszkow is an urban settlement, manorial farmstead and estate on the river of the same name, a tributary on the right side of the Pokrzywnica (left tributary of the Warta), in a wooded area, elevation about 113 meters above sea level, Konin county, gmina [rural administrative district] and parish of Tuliszkow, 16 km. south of Konin, 9.6 km. east of Rychwal. It has a brick parish church, an elementary school, a gmina office, a steam alcohol distillery using up to 30,000 bushels of potatoes, 148 houses, and 1,674 inhabitants (148 Jewish). In 1827 there were 113 houses, 999 inhabitants. There are 8 market fairs here annually.

It is a fairly ancient settlement, the seat of the Zaremba clan, who endowed the church and founded the town. According to local tradition, the church of St. Wit, made of wood, was built originally in the 12th century.  Jan Zaremba "de Tolischcovo," Kalisz castellan, appears in a document from 1404 (Kodeks dypl. pol., II, 365). The same Jan paid for an altar in the TuliszkÑ w church, devoted to the Blessed Virgin. Mikolaj Zaremba of Kalinowa, Leczyca castellan and starosta [an official in charge of a district] of Kruszwica, built a new church of brick in 1450 (according to Niesiecki), still standing today. It is clear that at that time the settlement received a charter as a town. In 1473 the Archbishop of Gniezno Gruszczynski confirmed the endowment of four mansioners at the Tuliszkow church set up by the landowners. This endowment lapsed in the 17th century.

In the early 16th century the fields of the manorial farmsteads of the town and the area near the town contributed a tithe to the pastor; the inhabitants of the town and surrounding area each contributed a Mass offering of a bushel of rye and of oats per field, and those without land gave 4 three-pence coins, and tenants [landless peasants who lived with and worked for someone who owned land] gave one penny per field (Laski, Liber benificiorum, I. 270).  In 1579 the town paid a tax of 4 florins and 24 pence; the tax on 6 distilleries, 16 craftsmen, 3 tavern-owners serving vodka, and 2 tenants without livestock came to a total of 14 florins, 4 pence (Pawinski, Wielkopolska, I, 242). Jews were not allowed to live there. In 1881 a fire destroyed the settlement.

As of 1885 the Tuliszko w estates (owned by Count Ludwik Wodzicki) consisted of the following folwarks [manorial farmsteads]: Tuliszkow (also known as Zadworna Wies [literally "the village beyond the manor"]), Wymyslow, Ogorzelczyn with Huta, Tarnowa (also called Kaleniec), Jozinki, and Nowy Swiat, with estate lands called Jablonna, Godz, Okret, Bisztora, for an area of 8,799 morgas [1 morga = about 0.56 hectares]. The Tuliszkow or Zadworna Wies folwark had 973 morgas of farmland or gardens, 107 of meadows, 5,051 of forests, 62 unused, with 18 brick buildings and 20 wooden, and an 11-field crop rotation system; and the forest was under management. The Wymyslo w folwark had 377 morgas of farmland or gardens, 98 of meadows, 22 of forests, 16 unused, with 3 brick buildings, 4 wooden, and an 8-field crop rotation. The Ogorzelczyn folwark, including Huta, had 338 morgas of farmland or gardens, 121 of meadows, 9 of forests, 20 unused, with 3 brick buildings, 3 wooden, and a 12-field crop rotation system. The Tarnowa or Kaleniec folwark had 156 morgas of farmland or gardens, 12 of meadows, 8 of pastureland, 1 overgrown with bushes, 2 unused, with 6 wooden buildings. The Jo zinki folwark had 565 mo rgas of farmland or gardens, 174 of meadows, 59 of pastureland, 23 of forests, 31 unused, with 8 brick buildings and 2 wooden. The Nowy Swiat folwark had 420 morgas of farmland or gardens, 80 of meadows, 26 of pastureland, 37 of forests, 17 unused, with 6 brick buildings and 2 wooden, 8-field crop rotation, a brickyard, and deposits of lime marl and peat.

The estate previously consisted of: the town of Tuliszkow, 184 settlements, 1,072 morgas, and the following villages: Ogorzelczyn, 27 settlements and 427 morgas; Krempa, 18 settlements and 383 morgas; Sarbicko, 33 settlements, 138 morgas; Tarnowo, 23 settlements, 476 morgas; Nowy Swiat, 11 settlements, 13 morgas; Kaliska, 4 settlements, 18 morgas; Zadworna Wies, 34 settlements and 18 morgs; Kozia Go ra, 10 settlements, 238 morgs; Sierpik, 3 settlements, 16 morgas; Kunegundowo, 2 settlements, 32 morgas; and Budki Ogorzelskie, 5 settlements, 7 mo rgs.

Tuliszko w parish belongs to Konin deanery and has 2,640 souls. The gmina belongs to the 3rd rural judicial district in the settlement of Rachwal, where there is also a post office. The gmina covers 24,490 morgas, and includes 7,461 inhabitants. Of the 8,474 persons registered in the list of permanent residents, 907 are not present [i.e., absent, for whatever reason, probably on military duty or something like that]. Among the permanent population are 590 Protestants, 7 Orthodox, and 227 Jews. The gmina consists of: Boguslawice, the settlement of Bugaj, the settlement of Deby, the village of Dryja and its mill, Gadowo, Gado wek, Holendry Starogadowskie and Nowogadowskie, the settlement of Gozdo w, Grabowiec, Grzymiszew, Imilko w, Jo zinki, the settlement of Jablonna, the settlement of Kaliska, Kepiny, Kiszewy, Kunegundowo, Krepa, Lowikuz, Nowy Swiat, Ogorzelczyn, the settlement of Paluszek, Ruda, Sarbicko, the settlement of Sierpik, Smaszewo, Smaszewskie Holendry, the settlement of Smolarnia, Tarnowo, Tuliszko w, Wro blina, Wymyslow, and Zadworna. - Bronislaw Chlebowski.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892

Translated by: William F. Hoffman for Wanda Mead Campbell, 73 Aldrich Ave., Binghamton NY 13903, who would like to compare notes with anyone else interested in Tuliszko w. (Nov 1998).

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Tupadły

Current administrative location: Tupadły, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Tupadly, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

1) Sometimes called Tupadła. An estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 14 kilometers north of Inowrocław and Pakość. It is elevated 84 meters above sea level. Tupadły belongs to the Catholic Parish in Liszkowo and the Protestant Parish in Dąbrowa (German name: Elsendorf). There is a railway station and post office located in Złotniki (German name: Gueldenhof). Tupadły has 7 houses with 132 inhabitants (88 Catholics and 44 Protestants) and 274 hectares of land (260 hectare of farmland and 6 hectare of meadows. In 1891, according to the latest Kirstein's statistics book, Tupadły had 407.67 hectares of land). Tupadły specializes in sugar beet farming.

In 1488, the Bishop of Pozńan, Piotr of Bnin, promoted the Kościelec Parish to a collegiate church from funds received as a tithe from the Tupadły estate (Kod. Dypl. Pol., II, 572). In 1583, Barbara Kaczkowska inherited a payment of 5 łan of peasant land and 3 crofts.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.626].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Turbia

Turbia along with Obojna, Wólka Turebska, and Zaosie, villages, county of Tarnobrzeg, lies on the left bank of the San, along the highway from Rozwadów to Nadbrzezie on the Wisla, 7 kilometers on the northwest of Rozwadów. The village has 223 houses, lies beside the highway and surrounds the church. Obojna, south of the village, near a large coniferous forest (it has 62 houses), west of it stands a inn and 10 cottages called "Zaosie," farther north from the village on the San, Wólka Turebska (79 houses). The whole community has 383 houses. (8 houses on the large expanse), 2,066 inhabitants (1,026 men, 1.040 women), 2,015 Roman Catholics and 51 Jews. The large estate (part of the estate in tail of Rozwadów Flieronim, Prince of Lubomirski) has 5 inns, a distillery, mill, brickyard and two manorial farms. It comprises 385 mórgs of fields, 72 mórgs of meadows, 1 mórg 860 saien of gardens, 33 mórgs of pastureland, 933 mórgs of forests, 8 mórgs of marshes and 4 mórgs of building parcels; the lesser estate has 1,316 mórgs of fields, 158 mórgs of meadows and gardens and 490 mórgs of pastureland. From 1429 Turbia (Kod, dzp, mogil, str, 176)*1 was owned by the Sandomierz Canons as a benefice endowment called "Turebska" (Dlugosz, L.B. II. 356 I I. 349)*2. It belonged to the parish in Charzewice. During the time of Dlugosz there were situated here peasants' lans, 4 farms without fields, 3 inns with fields, tithes worth 20 grzywnas the peasants paid the pastor in Bieliny, for the Canons' landed estate, 2 grzywnas to the Sandomierz vicariate. The Canons' manor was good. The Canon collected a duty of up to 4 denarii per sheep and up to 1/2 grosza per horse. In 1578 (Pawinski, Malop.,199)*3 the village counted 24 peasants on 12 lans, 18 farms with fields, 2 tenant farmers with cattle, 8 tenant farmers without cattle and 2 craftsman. The fill-sized farms rose later, because the census of 1662 makes no mention of it. In 1751 there was established here the chapter house of the collegiate church of the Sandomierz parish and in 1791 the present wooden church was erected. The Austrian government merged this village with the religious foundation and afterwards sold it to Prince Luboimirski. The parish belongs to the deanery of Miechocin. The village has an elementary school and a community loan office with capital of 7,078 Rhenish Zloty. Together with the fill-sized farms, Turbia borders on the west with Majdan Zbydniowski, Zbydniów and Kotowa Wola, on the south with Charzewice, and on southeast with Pilchów.

*1 Kodeks mogilski, Krakow 1865
*2 Jan Dlugosz, Liber Bebeficiorum dioecesis cracovienis, volumn1-3, Kraków 1864
*3 Adolf Pawinski, Malopolska

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, vol. 12, pps. 630-631, Warsaw 1892

Submitted by Anthony Paddock (Dec 2003)

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Turlejewo

Current administrative location: Turlejewo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Turlejewo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

The property of the local major and located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 6 kilometers northeast of Pakość. The nearest post office and railway station are in Jaksice. Turlejewo belongs to the rural district of Tuczno and the Tuczno Parish. Turlejewo was formed after 1830. Turlejewo has 3 houses with 40 inhabitants and 124 hectares of land. The property has a peat bog and a cattle fattening farm.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.645].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Tuszkowska Huta

Current administrative location: Tuszkowska Huta, Gmina Lipusz, Powiat Kościerzyna, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Gruenthal, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.

The German name is Gruenthal. Tuszkowska Huta is a forestry district in the powiat Kościerzyna. The post office and catholic parish are located in Lipusz. There are 9 inhabitants.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.674].

Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Tuszkowy

Current administrative location: Tuszkowy, Gmina Lipusz, Powiat Kościerzyna, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Tuschkau, Kreis Berent, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.

The German name is Tuschkau. Tuszkowy is a Kaszubian village in powiat Kościerzyna. The village's post office and catholic parish are located in Lipusz. Tuszkowy has a Catholic school within the village. The village has 20 farmers that own their own land and 10 crofts (enclosed sections of farmland). The village land area is 1579 hectares (700 ha. arable farm land, 47 ha. meadows, and 28 ha. forests). In 1885, there were 55 houses, 76 homesteads, and 411 inhabitants (393 Catholic and 18 Evangelical Protestant).

Around 1710, the Mesznego records indicate that villagers gave 5 bushels of rye and the same amount in oats (ob. Wizytę Szaniawskiego, str. 13). In the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Tuszkowy belonged to the Parchowo starostwo. In 1773, the Prussian Commission recorded: The inhabitants are Poles and Catholics. There are 2 soltys (mayors/bailiffs), 5 leman (elected officials) with starosta (district officials) privileges, and this was confirmed in 1762. Moreover, there are 2 well-off farmers who pay rent, an innkeeper, a croft of land that is partially owned by a peasant farmer, a blacksmith, 2 well-off farmers without land, 1 shepherd, and 2 foresters. There is an unknown number of włóka (fields). The soltys and leman judgments are based on the Chełmo law (a charter defining terms of incorporation of towns/villages in Prussia). Although, they provide rent and wagons to the well-off farmers, who are free from the crowds. Barely a third of the land is plowed, because the soil is so disappointing. The entire village sows: 161 bushels of rye, 24 bushels of barely, 25 bushels of oats, 38 1/2 bushels of buckwheat, 9 bushels of peas, 2 1/2 bushels of grain, and gathers 23 1/2 bushels of hay. Locusts cause great pity to the harvests. There is free firewood and building materials. Also, there is free feed or fodder in the Kingdom's forests, which without this villagers could not maintain. Last year (that is in 1773) the whole village suffered, except for 3 farm owners, because no bushels of wheat were sown in the spring. The villagers had to sell half of their cattle for rent, which caused the greatest poverty. The innkeeper must take liquor to Parchowo. From Lake Ostronka, the soltys and leman have free terns for their tables. There is a common tarred furnace, which has 15 burning times. The cost is 1 taler after each use. Firewood for burning is available to take in the government forest. Rent payments for łan (fields) and carts is as follows: Soltys Gawin pays 8 talar 78 groszy and Soltys Chrapowski pays 8 talar 3 groszy. The payments for Soltys Chrapowski's leman are 16 talar 19 groszy 9 pfennige. Others are paying every 4 leman 13 to 17 talar. On 2 different properties one well-off farmer paid 28 talar, while the other paid 13 taler 60 groszy. The innkeeper paid 3 taler 60 groszy and an average income farmer paid 5 talar 30 groszy. The entire village is paying 2 talar 60 groszy for a new field, the previously mentioned pay nothing. In addition, each soltys gives 6 3/4 bushels of oats and 1 goose; each leman gives 3/4 bushels of oats, 1 goose, and 17 groszy instead of hens; 1 well-off farmer who rents gives 1 1/2 bushels of oats, 1 goose, and 34 groszy instead of hens; the 2nd well-off farmer gives the same as the leman. Everyone in the crowd are not led astray, because each farmer is required to take 3 piles of firewood that can be found at the brewery about a mile away in Parchowo. With each owner paying taxes to the Lipusz Parish of 1 bushel of rye and 1 bushel of oats, half went towards an organist. The innkeeper and the others did not pay this tax. A winter tax and a pogłówne (a certain tax levied during this time frame) were paid: the soltys paid 12 talar 66 groszy; each leman and well-off farmer paid 3 talar 20 groszy; the innkeeper paid 1 talar 21 groszy; the blacksmith paid 42 groszy towards the pogłówne tax; and the sheep farmer and shepherd paid 36 groszy. The soltys and 4 well-off farmers each had 2 cows, 20 sheep, and 4 pigs. Each leman had 2 cows, 10 sheep, and 2 pigs. The soltys had 4 włók of land, the leman had 6 włók, and the well-off farmers had 4 włók (in which 1 had 2 włók, 1 had 1 włók, the other 2 each had a half włók).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, pp.674-675].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Tuszyma

In 1508 Thuszyma, 1536 Thussinia, village in the district of Mielec, on the right bank of the Wisloka, opposite Przeclaw, beside the railroad from Debica to Tamobrzeg, between the stations Dabie (17 kilometers) and Rzochów (24 kilometers). The Dabie station belongs to the territory of Tuszyma. From the east the village is separated by a tributary of the stream, Rudy, from the territory of Bialy Bór. Elevation reaches 193 meters. Together with the larger estate possessions, divided into three parts are: Tuszyma, Dabie, Pikolowka and Checina or Hicin, with the hamlet Pustkarnia, the village has 203 houses, 1004 inhabitants, 954 Roman Catholics (parish in Przeclaw, partly in Rzochów) and 50 Jews. Count Mieczyslaw Rey's portion has 12 mórgs of fields. Dabie portion of Count Zygmunt Romer, 224 mórgs of fields, 5 mórgs of meadows, 1 mórg 1,378 sazen of gardens, 7 mórgs of pastures, 2 mórgs of forests, 34 mórgs of marshes, 3 mórgs of barren land and 1 mórg 249 sazen of building parcels. Pikolowka and Checina (Feliks and Zdzislaw Bogusz) counts 155 mórgs of fields, 27 mórgs of meadows, 4 mórgs of gardens, 130 mórgs of pastures, 39 mórgs of forests, 4 mórgs of barren land and 4 mórgs 330 sqien of building parcels. The lesser estate has 680 mórgs of fields, 124 mórgs of meadows and gardens, 69 mórgs of pastures and 9 mórgs of forests. In all likelihood, the village was established in the XV century, Dlugosz only mentions the fields owned by the hamlet head (L.B., II, 298). In 1536, Stanislaw Tarnowski, Sacz castellan, had 18 peasants on irregular fields, an innkeeper paying a rental fee, 2 cottagers paying rental fees of 11 grzywna's, 10 1/2 pennies, 40 vessels of oats, roosters, 60 capons, eggs, cheese and so forth. In addition there were two larger ponds and two pools. Debts were worked off up to Rzemieñ. (Pawiñski, Malopolska, 503). Tuszyma belonged to the parish in Ksiaznice. The community loan office has 721 Rhenish zloty in capital. Tuszyma borders Meciszów to the south, Rzemien to the north, Dobrynin and Bialy Bór to the east.
Dr. Maurycy Maciszewski

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, Vol. XII, Pages 675-676, Warsaw 1892

Submitted by: Anthony Paddock, 5015 Birney Ave., Moosic, PA 18507

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