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Slupy

in documents Slup, an estate with a parish church in Szubin county, Kcynia deanery, 7 km. southwest of Szubin, on the Gasawka, a tributary of the Notec; it borders Dabro wka, Kro likowo, Szubska Wies, Kowalewo, and Wasosz.  Slupy has its own parish and post office, the railway station is 12 km. away in Kcynia.  It has 14 houses, 271 Catholic residents and 1 Protestant, 789 hectares of land (311 of fields, 293 of meadows, 20 of forest), a brick-making plant, a mill, a distillery, a cheese factory, and cultivation of Dutch cattle; the owner is Konstanty Zo ltowski.  In 1233 Drogomir, son of Piotr, signed his name as z Slupow [from Slupy], as did Mikolaj in 1399; in 1577 there were 2 fields owned and cultivated and 7 crofts, the number of which increased in two years to 13. The Polewskis owned this estate toward the end of the last century, then later the Sadowskis.  Near Slupy a bronze urn and stone ax were dug up.  The church, under the patronage of St. Wit, Modest, and Krescencya, existed before 1399; at that time Wojciech, Kamien castellan, and Mikolaj z Slupo w donated the village of Gabin (Gombin), a mile from Slupy, to the church, and it is the property of the presbytery.  Pastor Jan Prabucki erected a new, wooden church in place of the old one in 1730, and by 1840 a brick one stood on the spot.  The parish, numbering 1,857 souls, consists of: Antoniewo, Babiagac, Chraplewo, Ciezkowo, Dabro wka, Katynka, Kowalewo, Kro likowo, Piardowo, Slupy, Smarzykowo, Smolarnia, Wasosz, and Wrzosy.   There are parochial schools in Kro likowo and Wasosz.  Laski writes of the presbytery's endowment in Liber Benificiorum, I, 144

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Summer 1996 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America". (Nov 1998)

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Słupy Duże

Current administrative location: Słupy Duże, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Słupy, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A peasant colony located near the Bachorzą valley. Słupy Duże is located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Bądkowo. It belongs to the Bądkowo Parish. There are 305 inhabitants residing on 1144 morgs of land. Słupy Duże has a mill located within the colony. In 1827, there were 18 houses with 168 inhabitants.

In 1557, the village of Słupy was located in powiat Brześć. It belonged to the Bądkowo parish and the Włocławek chapter. Słupy had 12 full size farms, 1 croft (an enclosed section of farmland), and 4 tenant farmers (Pawiński, Wielkp., II, 6).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.862].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Słupy Małe

Current administrative location: Słupy Małe, Gmina Bądkowo, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Słupy, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

A colony located in powiat Nieszawa. In 1250, the colony of Słupy belonged to the deanery of the Włocławek bishopric seat (Ulanow. Dok. kujaw., 187).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.15b, p.597].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Służewo

Current administrative location: Służewo, Gmina Aleksandrow–Kujawski, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Służewo, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

In 1241, it was called Sluszewo. In 1245, it was called Sluzewo. An urban settlement and former town, located in Powiat Nieszawa. It belongs to the gmina and parish of Służewo. It lies a few verst southwest of Aleksandrów (Warszawa-Bydzgoszcz borderland railway station). A few verst from the point where the Polish Kingdom borders West Prussia and Kreis Poznań. It is a distance of 16 verst from Nieszawa. The former route from Warszawa to Toruń (at Breść Kujawski) passed by Służewo. It had a brick church, 4 old age home shelters, a beginner school, customs house, municipal office, 120 homes, 1452 inhabitants, and 487 morgs of land belonging to the townspeople. The village and folwark have 122 inhabitants.

In 1827, the city had 109 houses and 1335 inhabitants. The village and folwark had 13 homes and 134 inhabitants. The (former) rectory had 55 inhabitants. There were 19 morgs of land owned by the peasants.

The estate palace area was converted into a castle and a park. In 1888, the Służewo estate consisted of the following folwarks: Służewo and Goszczewo; Rożen, Stefanów, and Leśniczówka had a combined area of 3401 morgs; the Służewo folwark had 1016 morgs of cultivated farm and garden land, 80 morgs of meadow, 9 morgs of pasture, 63 morgs of forest, 51 morgs of barren unused land, 42 brick buildings, 20 wooden buildings, and a 9 and 15 half fields crop rotation; and the Goszczewo folwark had 745 morgs of cultivated farm and garden land, 54 morgs of meadow, 259 morgs of pasture, 1052 morgs of forest, 72 morgs of barren unused land, 5 brick buildings, 17 wooden buildings, an 8 and 10 half fields crop rotation, a forest equipped with a railway for the past 90 years, and 2 windmills. The estate formerly included: the Służewo city had 177 inhabitants and 487 morgs of land; the Służewo village had 17 inhabitants and 17 morgs of land; the village of Broniszewo had 19 inhabitants and 148 morgs of land; the village of Starawieś had 19 inhabitants and 124 morgs of land; the village of Wólka had 20 inhabitants and 234 morgs of land; the village of Chrusty (also called Kopanina) had 13 inhabitants and 196 morgs of land; the village of Holendry Goszczewskie had 6 inhabitants and 94 morgs of land; and the village of Rożen had 6 inhabitants and 44 morgs of land.

In 1241, Konrad, Duke of Łęczyca, gave the village of Służewo to Count (komesowi) Gotard, the son of Łukasz, who was referenced for the victory over the Prussians, Lithuanians, and Jadźwingowie. He shot 7 captive Jadźwingów military leaders (seven was stated by Prince Yaczwaijgowe), for which the Prince received a redemption of 70 silver grzywna for each. The Duke freed this village from all imposts and duties under Polish law. In 1245, further published documents from Czersku (Krysku ?) are silent about the acts of Gotard and only add that the Służewo village "a church is there" and that the village had be given "with laws for fields, meadows, honey production, and deer hunting" (Kod. Mucz. Rzysz. I, 50 i II, 25). In the 14th century, documents list a whole series of owners and co-owners (ob. Kod. Mucz. Rzysz., II, 160, 172, 193, 219). In 1241, Jan, Duke of Warszawa, reaffirmed the privilege for the 13 heirs and descendants of Gotard (ib., II, 324). During the 15th century, Służewo was located on the main road from Warszawa to Toruń, this may have helped to transform the village into a city. In 1447, there were 4 vicars (mansyonarzy) established at the church. The funds for the construction were provided by the heirs and given to Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki, which no doubtfully came from the hospital foundation. One of the vicars was obliged to teach in the church school. In 1560, the new church was built on the site where the old parish church once stood. The new parish, under the patronage of Saint John the Baptist, was built by Jan Służewski, Count of Sulima, the wojewoda (the province head) of Brześć Kujawski and his wife Małgorzata de Sternberg-Kostka. The vault of the nave is supported by two pillars. At the head of the temple was a tower, which can be seen from Toruń. The same founders that built the church, also built the hospital and church rectory. The hospital had 2 chambers and 7 beds, with an extensive entrance way containing an altar. A percentage of a 3000 Polish złoty tithe, written by wojewoda Służewski, from the village of Ośno served to maintain the hospital. In the 18th century, the vicar foundation ceased to exist due to the loss of funds. The pastor had 79 morgs of land. The hereditary estate supposedly came from the 17th century. The banners on the four corners of the towers are from 1683. Renovations have changed the original features and layout of this building. There is a beautiful English garden at the palace. The parish should be a filial church, because it is on the border of Aleksandrówo. The Służewo Parish belongs to the Nieszawa Deanery and has 5060 souls.

The Służewo gmina belongs to District Court I in Nieszawa. It has a territory of 10,210 morgs, of this 1438 morgs are owned by the peasants. There are 5231 inhabitants. The post office, telegraph office, and train station are located in Aleksandrówo. Br. Ch.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.863].

Translated by Al Wierzba, September 2010. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Smetowko

German name: Smentowken

A knightly estate in the powiat of Kwidzyn, post office and colony of Czerwinsk, Catholic church at Lalkowy; 320 hectares (about 790 acres - 5 acres of forest, 42 acres of meadows, and 652 acres of farmland). In the year 1885 there were 7 houses, 26 chimneyless huts., 149 inhabitants, 114 Catholics, 35 Evangelical Protestants. In times of the Commonwealth Smetowko belonged to the "Nowskie" district. In 1648 Mrs. Dembinska was paid 2 fl ("fl" stands for florin - a currancy of various countries in Europe) and 12 gr. ("gr." stands for "grosze" which is 1/100 of a "zloty"). Mr. Jan Czapski was paid 6 fl. and 12gr. (refer to the 1871 yearbook of Poznan, page 176). In 1710 Smetowko was giving 6 korce (old weight metric) of rye and the same amount of oats. In 1780, Konstantyna Wetphal inherited this property with 56 Catholics and 11 non-Catholics.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: John Gorski - johng@fourgen.com (with help from "Beata") (Sep 1997)

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Smetowo

German name: Smentau, in documents known as Smantow.

A manor farm in the kingdom owned by Ostrowitego, in the district of Kwidzyn, post office at Czerwinsk, Catholic church at Lalkowy.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: John Gorski - johng@fourgen.com (with help from "Beata") (Sep 1997)

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Sobiejuchy

Sobiejuchy (So-byeh-you-hyh), Sobeiuca (year 1364), Szobyeyuchy (year 1523)

Located between the Lakes Sobiejuskim and Drobrylewskim in the Powiat of Szubin. About 7 km north of Znin where a Post Office is located. A Catholic Church St. Katherine's of Alexandria is located in Brzyskorzystew a distance of 3 km. A railroad station is located at Wapne about 15 km distant and an Inn/Tavern (Karczma) and settlement at Obrona Lesna 2 km distant. Here is located the Manor Farm of Jaroslaw Jaracewski an area of approximately 858 hectares, 583 of which are open area, 85 of meadow and 41 of woods.)

In the year 1364 it was written that Mikolaj came through the area. (Editors Note 1)

In the year 1577 there was here two settlements belonging to Katarzyna Sobiejuska, one of 200 morgs. The other was 300 to 450 morgs and 8 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens, without farmers. In the year 1579 there was 7-1/2 Slad (Editors Note 2) on 700¡V1125 morgs a settlement and 3 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens. In the year 1618 5-1/2 Slad 500 to 750 morgs a settlement, 4 zagr. (zagroda) a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and gardens with farmers and 3 without farmers and 1(komornik) tenant farmer, peasant who boarded at another s home. About the year 1793 the village was inherited by the Zlotnicki Family.

Editors Note 1 ÿ Mikolajÿ Stories abound on¡§the Bloody Devil of Venecja" - Mikolaj z Chomiazy (Nicholas from Chomiazy) who was the builder of the Zamek Venecja castle near Biskupin in the 1380's. Mikolaj actually existed and was a Judge in the Kalisz region for some 20 years. It is said that his reputation comes not from the severity of his¡§Judgements¡¨but the cruel and viscous manner in which he treated his subjects. Probably however he earned his name¡§Bloody Devil¡¨after his feats in the 1383-86 civil wars between the magnate families. He is said to roam the castle dungeons at night!

Editors Note 2 ÿ Slady/Slad: a measure of land, roughly synonymous with "Lan". It is said to be equal to about 40 Magdeburg huby , or 100-150 morgs

Translated by Jim Piechorowski (June 2005), PGSA # 6005 / 6151; family : Piechorowski, Trzebiatowski

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Sójkowo

Current administrative location: Sójkowo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Soykowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

In 1442, it was called Sonikow. In 1493, it was called Sowykowo. In 1583, it was called Sowikowo. In 1771, it was called Suykow. It is also known as Sujkowo and Soykowo. An estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is located about 6 kilometers northwest of Inowrocław. Sójkowo borders with the following villages: Cieślin, Rycerzewo, Pławin, Radłowek, Sławęcin, and Sławęcinek. Sójkowo belongs to the Kościelec Parish. There is a post office and railway station located in Inowrocław. Sójkowo has 4 houses with 109 inhabitants (all Catholic) and 237 hectares of land (224 hectare of farmland and 13 hectare of meadow). The farmland produced an income of 33.33 marks, while the meadow lands produced an income of 29.37 marks. The Sójkowo estate belongs to the Brzeski family.

Sójkowo was once royal property. In 1442, Władysław Jan of Kościelec paid 100 in fees to the King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1493, King Jan Olbracht confirmed the settlement, which was a pledge (lease) that stood between Andrzej and Mikołaj Kościelecki (Kod. Dypl. Rzysz., II, 880 i 959). In 1583, Andrzej Modilbóg held the lease, which was for the 6 łan settlement. In 1771, Józef Wałecki paid 50 Polish złoty, quarterly, for Sójkowo. After the lands were annexed by Prussia, the estate passed into private hands. According to documents dated in 1257, B. Ulanowski explains that Sucov is not Sójkowo (Dokum. kuj. i mazow.). Duke Kazimierz of Łęczyca and Kujawy, gave the Byszewo (Koronowo) monastery, Sucov and Trzęsacz, that were in the district of the Wischegrod castellan, which lies near the large Wisła River. The Wisła flows about 4 mila from Sójkowo. The name Sucov is correct. Indeed, as we've read it in other documents. In 1288, Sucov is listed with Transicz (Trzęsacz). In 1315, listed Transicz and Sucov lying near the Wisła River (Kod. Dypl. Pol. Rzysz., II, 628 i 199). E. Cal.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.10].

Translated by Al Wierzba, September 2010. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Sosno

A village in the county of Zlotow or Zlotowo, 352 hectares (870 acres) in size, 30 (about 74 acres) in meadow, and 284 (about 702 acres) in fields. There are 34 dwellings housing 48 families, 255 inhabitants: 69 Catholics, 183 Lutheran. parish of Wawelno.

A knightly estate in the county of Zlotow or Zlotowo, with the folwarks of Zielonka (Grunthal): 5 dwellings, 101 inhabitants; Dzidzinek (Markenhof) and Polko, all told 1610 hectares (about 3978 acres), 319 (about 788 acres) in forest, 233 (576 acres) in meadow, and 893 (about 2206 acres) in field. All told 21 dwellings housing, 63 families, 408 inhabitants (170 Catholic, 238 Lutheran). parish of Wawelno.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Spoczynek

Current administrative location: Spoczynek, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Spoczynek, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A manor farm (folwark) located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. Spoczynek belongs to the Koneck Parish. It has 29 houses and 353 morgs of land. In 1827, it had 3 houses with 31 inhabitants. It belongs to the Faliszewo estate.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.145].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Srebrnagora

Srebrnagora in the past: Srebnagorka and Sebrnagorki, a village, church, and Manor Estate in powiat Wagrowiwckim and Zninski, in the deanery of Leknenskim, in Palucki about 12 km to the south of Kcynia, on the road to Zernik, near the highway from Kcynia to Janowca, and near the railroad from Gniezno to Nakel, in the lowland enclosed by hills; there is a Catholic Church and School in this place, a Post Office and Railroad station at Damaslawku (Elsenau) about 5 km distant.

Between the years 1386 and 1399 it is written Mikolaj Srebrnogorski is in Sebrna Gora; later the right of inheritance passes to Andzej Smoszewski (in the year 1687) Anna (House of Skrzetuskick) Bojanowska (in the year 1762) and Aleksander Moszczenski, ststa bresko-kujawski, the heir to Stepuchowa (in the year 1793). Sebrna Gora is a town in the year 1458 and provides foot soldiers for the crusade on Malbork. (Kod. Wielkp. Racz., str. 181); later they return to the village. In the year 1557 it is a settlement of 18 lan; in the year 1579, 6 occupied Manors and one empty, 4 zagr. Or small farmsteads with coutyards and gardens, 1 tenant farmer and a windmill.

There is a Catholic Church Sw. Mikolaja existing from the year 1450; a new Church was erected of brick in this place when the old one burned in the year 1845-46 (ob.Laski,Lib. Ben., 138-140); Here was introduced the fellowship: The Holy Rosary and Sw. Benona. The parish list 1913 souls, comprised of the villages of Aleksandrowo, Mokronosy, Podolin, Smoszewo, Srebrnagora, Turza and Wapno. The Duke of Poznan defined new boarders between the Manor Estates and the village, that is the farms of Sebrnagora ; some farms were left in the powiat of Wagrowiec, but a recently built Manor was included in the powiat of Zninskie.

(1) The village of Srebrnagora now has 10 homes and 89 inhabitants, 225 hectares comprised of 177 of tillable fields and gardens, 28 of meadow. There is a Manor / Folwork Aleksandrow , made up of two Manor properties ; 14 homes, 226 inhabitants, 1 Protestant; 768 hectares (520 of tillable fields, 116 of meadow and 31 of forest); clean profit from agriculture 13.32, from the meadows 13.71 and from the forest 3.52 German Marks; breeding and fattening cattle; the property is owned by Stanislaw Moszczenski.

(2) Srebrnagora, powiat Wagrowiecki, ob. Piatek

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego, Warsaw 1890, p. 153-154.

Translated by Jim Piechorowski (PGSA #6005), November 2005; families: Piechorowski, Piechurowski  

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Sroda

Sroda [Wielkopolska]: formerly Srzoda, Szroda, Szrzoda, Srzeda, Szreda, officially Schroda, a city and county seat [powiat] in the Grand Duchy of Poznan, 30 km. southeast of Poznan, on the Poznan-Kluczbork railroad line, on a stream that flows into the Maskawa River. Sroda lies at 52 degrees 14' north latitude, 17 degrees 17' east longitude, 77.414 meters above sea level. It has two churches (one Catholic, one Protestant), a synagogue, a hospital and convent of the Sisters of Mercy, a railway station, a telegraph station, a second-class post office, a municipal savings bank, Polish loan and industrial associations, Polish and German agricultural societies, 3 doctors, a veterinarian, a pharmacy, 3 agents, a headquarters of the national defense, 19th regiment, and 4 fairs. It is the seat of the county authorities, 2 district commissioners, a district court, and a Civil Registry office. Highways lead from the city to Kostrzyn, Poznan, Zaniemysl, Nowe Miasto and Miloslaw. Several local wells contain sulphur sections.

As of 1885 the city itself, the railroad station, Jewish cemetery, Plantaz, and sugar factory comprised the municipal district, with 296 houses, 991 families, 4,855 inhabitants (2,349 males and 2,506 females; 3,863 Catholics, 688 Protestants, 30 Jews) and 1,184 hectares (990 of farmland, 68 of meadows); the net income per hectare of farmland was 18.80 marks, and 20.76 marks per hectare of meadows... The population is primarily Polish and is employed in agriculture, retail trade, and industry. Jews are not tolerated in the city. Germans and Jews have appeared there only since the beginning of Prussian rule

In 1578 the city paid a tax of 64 gold zlotys; the city's farmland included 42 traces of settlements. At that time there were in the city 18 butchers, 17 shoemakers, 16 tavern-keepers, 10 tailors, 9 landless peasant boarders, 7 furriers, 6 smiths, 4 coopers, 4 wheelwrights, 3 locksmiths and the same number of landless peasants, 2 each of linen drapers, salt dealers, and cap makers, one maltster, one stall-keeper, one cloth-shearer, one rope-maker, one harness-maker, and one saddler...

Circa 1795 Sroda had 1,009 inhabitants, 215 houses, a collegiate church, a chapel, a Dominican monastery, a customs-house, and 9 windmills; several years later there were 226 houses and 1,217 inhabitants (103 of them Jews), 40 shoemakers, 32 tavern-keepers, 16 tailors, 10 furriers, 8 millers and bakers, 7 linen-drapers, 4 musicians, 3 each of coopers, wheelwrights, and smiths, 2 each of potters, bakers of honey-cakes, cap-makers, dealers in oil, barbers, innkeepers, and dealers in iron, and a dyer, glazier, mason, locksmith, chimney sweep, and butcher. There were 12 fairs a year; income came to 963 talars, expenditures 997 talars [a coin = 3 German marks].

Circa 1809 there were 1,200 inhabitants (150 of them Jews); in 1837 there were 2,067 inhabitants, and in 1843 there were 210 houses and 2,183 inhabitants (1,534 Catholic, 311 Protestant, 338 Jewish). In 1858 there were 2,821 inhabitants. In 1871 there were 3,506 inhabitants: 2,680 Catholic, 498 Protestants, 328 Jews, 1,655 men, 1,851 women, 909 children below 10 years of age, 4 blind persons, 2 madmen, and 2 deaf mutes.

The church of the Assumption of Our Lady was in existence as early as 1276, because its priest is mentioned in the records. A new, Gothic-style brick church was erected in 1423 by Mikolaj of Kiki, Poznan canon and the local pastor, who elevated it to the rank of a collegiate church and established a rectory, dean, caretaker, and 7 canons there. This action was confirmed in 1428 by Stanislaw Ciolek, Bishop of Poznan. In the church are a bench and a column with an unreadable inscription dating from those times.

Documents from the year 1281 mention Kromolice (calling it Chomoruicze), a possession of the church, which was previously owned by the manorial farmstead called Topola ... The Confraternity of St. Ann has existed since 1640, that of the Scapular since 1663, and that of the Rosary since 1665. The Pepowskis added a chapel, that of St. Mary Magdalene, to the church; the Grzymultowskis adorned it, and the right of collation [the privilege of nominating a candidate for a vacant ecclesiastical position] belonged to the municipal authorities. Hieronim Gostomski built a second chapel in 1602, endowing it with Piotrowo and Daszewice, and conferred the right of collation on the Jesuits of Poznan. In the church and chapels are the tombstones of. Ambrozy Pepowski, Sieradz voivode (t 1510); another Ambrozy, Sroda starosta (t 1571); Anna z Ostroroga (t 1584); and Urszula z Sienawy Gostomska (t 1589)...

The St. John the Baptist Church listed in the index to the Kodeks Wielkopolski (No. 1109) as being near Sroda refers to Krerowo, because in 1330 Jan, the Bishop of Poznan, transferred to the church in Krerowo tithes and other contributions collected from Sroda. Also existing at one time in Sroda, besides the collegiate church, were: Holy Spirit Church, beyond the Poznan gate, which was ruined after 1700-its beginnings supposedly went back to the year 1350; All Saints' Church, in GÑreckie on the outskirts of town, from 1600 to some time after 1696; Church of the Immaculate Conception and of St. Idzi, on the outskirts of Pyzdry, from 1607 to some time after 1696; St. Sebastian Church, outside the city on the road to Gniezno, from ca. 1610 to after 1715. Holy Cross Church and the Dominican monastery were founded ca. 1420 by Jan of Opatowice, Bishop of Chelm (see Rev. S. Baracz, Rys. dz. zak. kazn.).

In more recent times, after monasteries were abolished, the Prussian government gave the former Dominican church to the Lutherans; the monastery was in ruins by the second half of the 18th century. The Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul have a small convent and a hospital in Sroda. The hospital at Holy Cross Church existed ca. 1599. The parish school, mentioned in 1639, has undergone various turns of fortune; it was burned down by the Swedes, stripped of its teacher, and the like, and ca. 1784 came under the care of the municipal authorities.

The city was formerly surrounded by a wall and a moat, filled from a nearby stream. Information on the castle of Sroda in 1312 is based only on inference; there are no, details on the fate of the starosta's castle.

Sroda parish, numbering 7,718 souls, consists of: Anna, Annopole, Babin, Bojnice, Bukowy Las, Czartki, Henrykowo, Jaroslawiec, Kopaszyce, Kijewo, Marcelino, Mieczyslawow, Murzynowo Koscielne, Petkowo, Plawce, Podgaj, Polazejewo, Romanowo, Sabaszczewo, Slupia, Sroda, Streszki, Tadeuszowo, Topola, Wlostow, Zabikowo, Zberki, Zdziechowice, Zielniki and Zrenica. There is a branch church in Murzynowo. As of 1860 the Protestant parish, in 79 settlements, numbered 618 souls, alongside 10,355 Catholics. Parochial schools exist in Czartki, Jaroslawiec, Murzynowo Koscielne, Polazejewo, Sroda, Tadeuszowo, and Zrenica. The deanery of Sroda includes 14 parishes: Bnin, Koszuty, Krerowo, Kurnik, Maczniki, Madre, Nietrzanow, Niezamysl (Zaniemysl), Rogalinek, Smieciska, Solec, Splawie, Sroda and Tulce, as well as two branch churches, one chapel, 17 priests, 41 parochial schools, 5 ecclesiastical hospitals, and 33,356 souls. The parish of Rumiejki has vanished; Bagrowo and Murzynowo were incorporated into other parishes; there is a chapel in Rogalin. The deanery of Sroda encompasses the southern half of the county, extending west to Srem county.

On the 17th-18th of August, 1231, Wladyslaw Laskonogi died in Sroda. In 1233 the lords of Great Poland gave Sroda and Sroda district, along with other sections, to Henryk Brodaty [Henry the Bearded]. In 1253, as a result of the division of Great Poland, Sroda went to Boleslaw, the brother of Przemyslaw. In 1261 Boleslaw, son of Wladyslaw Odonicz, who was staying in Sroda, conferred on potters the rights of German law. In 1312 the Silesian princes divided Great Poland; at that time Sroda was the seat of a county or district. In 1331 the Teutonic Knights burned the city, sparing only the Church of Our Lady. In 1369 the starosta of Great Poland, Przeclaw, sold a lan of farmland in Sroda to the soltys of Murzynowo, granting him various privileges. Undoubtedly as early as then there were already starosta courts being held there; charters from 1378 and later sources confirm this assumption.

In 1370 a local wojt appears in records. About this time Sroda received a charter under German law from King Wladyslaw, who in 1402 allowed the townsmen to buy back Zielniki, which was pawned to Henryk of Zimna Woda for 800 grzywnas. In addition to Zielniki the city possessed RuszkÑw (1578-1793). In 1517 it bought the village of Urniszewo from the Poznan chapter, and later it acquired Zrenica. The starostas took both these possessions from the city. [Omitted: a long list of detailed events that would interest only the most devoted local historians].

On July 25th, 1655 the Swedish army marched into the city and looted it; the same thing happened again in 1703. The Sejm of 1773-1775 appointed a commission to settle the case of the noble Zablockis with Wasilewski, the pastor of Sroda, over the borders of Jaroslawiec and Urniszewo with Topola, Zielniki, and the city of Sroda (Konstyt., II, 283). In 1791 Sroda became the seat of a powiat comprising part of Kalisz province. After 1793 it was incorporated into the Poznan Inspectorate; during the time of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw it belonged to the departement [province] of Poznan, and in 1815 to the Grand Duchy of Poznan. Sroda took an active part in the movements of 1848.

As of the year 1662 the starostwo of Sroda consisted of. Kleszczewo, Murzynowc, (Koscielne), Sabaszczew, Sroda, Trzebislawki and Zrenica. In modern measures these settlements covered 3,997 hectares (1,793 of them manorial, 1,020 rural, and 1,184 municipal). The Prussian government seized Kleszczewo and Trzebislawki, with an area of 1,302 hectares. Napoleon I gave Murzynowo, Sabaszczewo, Sroda and Zrenica, with an area of 2,695 hectares, to General H. Dabrowski. In 1729 the starostwo (along with that of Odolanow) paid a lan tax of 400 gold zlotys, and in 1771 it paid a kwarta of 1,058 gold zlotys, 15 pence, and a hyberna of 1,895 gold zlotys, 20 pence. At the Sejm of 1773-1775 it was given to Gozimirski, Wschowa wojski, as an emphyteutic possession [a long-term lease or deed of unused property, requiring the owner to improve it]. Its starostas included: Ambrozy Pepowski, died 1571; Hieronim Gostomski, ca. 1602; Stanislaw Grzymultowski; Jan Cerekwicki, 1673-1674; Sylwester Sezaniecki, 1771; and Gozimirski.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11]

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Spring 2000 Bulletin.

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Srubsk

Current administrative location: Wierzbiczany, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Wierzbiczany, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

Around 1223 it was known as Szrubsko or Sropsko, in 1268 it was known as Svirepsco, in 1382 and 1583 it was known as Srobsko, and it has been erroneously called Szubsko. A folwark belonging to the village of Wierzbiczany, powiat Inowrocław. Szrubsk is located 7 kilometers to the south of Gniewkowo, which is where the rail station is located. The parish and post office are located in Parchanie. Szrubsk belongs to the district of Gąski (Gonsk). Szrubsk has 3 houses with 103 inhabitants, and the total area of land is 348 hectares.

From the years 1065 and 1193, Szrubsk was the property of the Mogilno monastery (Kod. Wielkop.). Szrubsk is comparable to Ściborze, powiat Inowrocław. In 1223 (or possibly 1268), Duke Ziemomyśl of Kujawy, gave the Marulewy, Dalkowo, and Szrubsk knights a hospital with a star in Inowrocław, providing residents of these settlements German law (Kod. Dypl. Pol., I, 29 i A. Mosbach, Wiad., 26-9). In 1382, Władysław, Duke of Opole, certified in Inowrocław that Bieżdziad of Kołudy pledged Szrubsk to Jarosław, the Canon of Gnieźno, for a stack of 300 grosz praski. In 1583, Jan Sropski (not Szubski) had a 2 łan settlement and 2 farmsteads.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.12, p.47].

Translated by Al Wierzba, September 2010. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Stanomin

Current administrative location: Stanomin, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Stanomin, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

In 1394, it was known as Stamonino. It is an estate located in powiat Inowrocław. Stanomin is about 13 kilometers southeast from Gniewkowo and 9 kilometers southwest of Służewo. The railway station is located in Gniewkowo. Stanomin is elevated about 85 meters above sea level. Stanomin belongs to the Brodnia (Brudnia) Parish. The post office is located in Dąbrowa (Gername name: Louisenfelde). Stanomin estate has a windmill. The Stanomin estate has 9 houses with 122 inhabitants (19 Protestants and 103 Catholics). Stanomin has an area of land equal to 525 hectare (454 hectare of farmland and 45 hectare of meadows). The owner is Franciszek Wysiecki.

In 1394, it was written that the estate was owned by Andrzej of the Gniewkowski family (Akta gr. pozn. No. 1906). In 1489, Paweł Wolski inherited the estate. In 1564, half of the village of Stanomin was under royal lease to Wawrzyniec Brzeziński, this included 4 peasants for every 4 vloka (1 vloka = 30 morgs) of land and an empty fifth of the land. The other half of the village of Stranomin was privately owned by the Baronowski family. The royal owned half of Stanomin earned an income of 10 floren (Rhennish currency), 28 groszy, and 6 szeleg (ancient Polish coin). The Stanomin folwark earned an income of 39 floren and 19 groszy (Lustr., V, 280). In 1583, Stanomin consisted of 3 parts: one part owned by the Kingdom; one part owned by Jan and Piotr Baronowski who held 2 łan and 2 crofts (enclosed sections of farmland); and one part owned by Marcin Baronowski who held a portion of land from the royal estate, which included 2 łan of area for a settlement, 5 crofts, 1 tenant farmer, and a craftsman. The section owned by the Kingdom consisted of 3 łan of land. About 1771, Antoni Wolski held the village and made payments of 27 Polish Złotys quarterly and 47 Polish Złotys, 6 groszy for a winter tax.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.214].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Starc

Also calld Starcz. In German Starz. A folwark belonging to Wielkie Chelmy in the county of Chojnice. Post office in Swornigacie (also Szwornigacie). In 1868 there were 7 buildings and 2 families. All told, 24 Catholic inhabitants.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net(Feb 2003)

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Stawnica

Current administrative location: Stawnica, Gmina Złotów, Powiat Złotów, Województwo Wielkopolskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Stewnitz, Kreis Flatow, Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder, Westpreußen, German Empire.

1.) The German name is Stewnitz. The village is located above the river Glumia, in the Zlotow powiat . There is a post office and a Catholic parish in Zlotowo, which is located 6 km away. Stawnica’s land area is about 864 hectares, of that, 605 hectares are farms, 136 hectares are meadows, and 40 hectares are woods. In 1885, there were 66 houses and 89 homesteads, with 493 residents (306 Catholics, 179 Protestants, and 8 Jewish). There is a mill located on Grzymek with 20 residents and 2 houses. Stawnica is located by the lakes Piaseczno and Gleboczek and by the meadows Ombrym and Olszynka. In addition there is an old trench called Zamkowa gora that lies near the Glumia River, which has its origins in Głąbsku (Głomsk). According to the Mesznego records from 1695, the parish collected the following taxes from the village: 9 farm owners paid 1 bushel of rye and 1/2 bushel of oats per włók (łan) that is not barren, by great measure of Łobżenicki (ob. Wizyt. Jezierskiego, str. 58 b.).

2) There is an estate in Stawnica. The land area totals 501 hectares (357 hecaters of farmland and 100 hectares of meadows). In 1885, there were 4 homes, 11 homesteads, and 69 inhabitants. Kś Fr.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.304].

Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Stolupianka

A village in the Suwalki powiat, Wizajny district and parish. Distance from Suwalki is 25 verst (approximately 27 km), 8 houses, 71 residents. In 1827 there were 9 houses, 74 residents.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11]

Translated by Peter Wessner, PSG Texas Polish Footprints, Spring 2001 Periodical

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Stoly

A village in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. It is 20 versts from the town of Sejny with 9 houses and 75 people.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 11, p. 370].

Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England, Dorfleiv@aol.com (May 2004)

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Straszewo

Current administrative location: Straszewo, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Straszewo, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

1) A village and manor farm (folwark) located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. It belongs to the Straszewo Parish. It is a distance of 14 verst from Nieszawa. The Straszewo parish has a wooden church, school, post office, mills, and a peat mine. In 1885, the Straszewo folwark included the settlement of Czajki. The folwark has 741 morgs of land (502 morgs of farm land, 66 morgs of meadows, 13 morgs of pasture, and 25 morgs of barren land), 16 brick buildings, 4 wooden buildings, and has a 8 half field rotation. The Straszewo village has 957 morgs of land. The village, together with the folwark, has 377 inhabitants. In 1827, there were 22 houses and 256 inhabitants. The Straszewo estate covered 1118 morgs. The following villages belonged to the estate: Brudnowo, Brudnówek, Czajki, Ossówka, Rybno, and Zazdromin.

In 1250, documents indicate that Straszewo was an ancient possession of the Bishopric of Kujawski (Ulanowski, Dokum. kujawskie, str. 187, No 13). The Bishopric established a church here and formed a parish under the patronage of Saint Marcin. The date of construction is unknown, but the parish was already in existence in the middle of the 16th century. In 1557, the Bishopric paid for 17 łan (fields) of serf land and 14 1/2 łan of rental land. Also, there were 2 settlements with 2 craftsmen (Pawiński, Wielkop., II, 5). The church was rebuilt several times. In the 17th century, the new Bishop Maciej Łubieński, reconstructed the church. In 1780, the church and its standing chapter was rebuilt again. The tombs of the familial heirs to the Seroczki estate of Józef Bogatko are staged in the cemetery chapel. After the village's occupation by the Prussian Government, the ownership of the village was transferred from the Bishopric to the government and then changed to privately owned (around 1827). The Straszewo Parish belongs to the Nieszawa Deanery and has 1360 souls.

The Straszewo gmina belongs to the District Court I, which is located in Nieszawa. It has a total area of 16,973 morgs: 10,861 morgs belonging to estates and 6112 morgs of peasant land. The population is approximately 5000 heads. The gmina produces potato starch at the Święte estate.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.390].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Straszow (or Strazow)

A village in Lancut county, with a railway station, that lies between Rzeszow and Lancut, on the plain at 202 meters above sea level, by an old river bed of the Wislok River. It borders with Krzemienica on the East, with Palikowka on the North, with Krasne on the West and with Kraczkowa on the South.

There is a park on the South side of the village, which belongs to Lancut castle. The Roman -catholic parish is in Krasne. This village includes of 102 houses (6 of them, bigger ones belong to lord of manor in Lancut) and have 491 inhabitants (472 - rom-cath, 7 evang and 12 jewish). The major land (property of the lord of manor in Lancut) covers 329 morgi of farm land, 17 morgi of meadows, 31 morgi of pasture and 60 morgi of forest. The minor land covers 369 morgi of farmland, 39 morgi of meadows, 39 of pasture and 1 morga of forest. The soil is sediment deposited by flowing water, fertile, and has pinewood.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890

Submitted by Jay M. Orbik and translated by Iwona Dakiniewicz - June 2002

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Strzemkowo

Current administrative location: Strzemkowo, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Strzemkowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

Formerly known as Strzemikowo. A village and estate located in powiat Inowrocław. It is about 5 kilometers northwest of Inowrocław, where a parish, post office, and railway station are located. Strzemkowo is near the Śmierni River (which flows into the Noteci River), along the Inowrocław-Bydgoszcz railway. Strzemkowo borders the following villages: Oporówek, Orłowo, Gnojno, Sławęcin, and Jaksice. There is a railway station located in Jaksice.

In 1583, Strzemkowo's 6 łan settlement was inherited by Wojciech Niemojewski. In recent times, Strzemkowo belonged to the Karłowski family.

The village has 29 hectares of land, 1 house and 7 inhabitants (all Protestants). The estate has 7 houses with 124 inhabitants (117 Catholics and 7 Protestants) and 260 hectares of land (235 hectare of farmland). Strzemkowo has a brickyard and specializes in Rambouillet sheep breeding. The current owner is Józef Trzebiński. E. Cal

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.476].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Subabcze

A peasant village in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. It is located 19 versts from Sejny. There are 6 houses and 75 people and a land area of 435 morgs. In 1827 there were 3 houses and 41 people and at one time it was part of the estate of Holny Wolmera.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 10, p. 539].

Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England, Dorfleiv@aol.com (May 2004)

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Subkowy

1) formerly Sobkowy, German Subkau, in documents dating 1282 Sobcouo, Schobkow, Schobkow, Sopkow, Zopcow, an ecclesiastical village in Tczew powiat, 11 km. south of Tczew, by the eastern railway and the Tczew highway, on both banks of the stream Drybok (Drebeck), a tributary of the Vistula, amid the fertile Gdan~sk lowlands.   It contains 21 peasant settlements and 26 farms, a total of 1,260 hectares (20 of meadows, 1,133 of cultivated land).  In 1885 there were 93 houses, 253 chimneys, and 1,134 inhabitants, 986 Catholic, 145 Protestant, 3 Jewish.  In the village is a 3rd-class post office, a 3-grade non-denominational school (in 1883 with 3 teachers, 182 children) and the Catholic parish church of St. Stanislaw the Bishop.  By the church is a hospital for 5 paupers, a Rosary confraternity (from 1720) and a Sobriety brotherhood (from 1857).  The parish consists of: Subkowy, Male Slonca, Maly Garc, Wielkie Slonca, Radostowo, Starzecin, Brzuszcz, Warcimierz and Warcimierek, Gniszewo, Czarlin, Wielglowy, Narkowy and Gorzedziej (branch church).  In 1867 the parish, belonging to Tczew deanery, numbered 3,762 souls, whereas it had 3,356 in 1889. The brick church has a presbytery with a beautiful stellar vault; the sacristy, vestibule and treasury date from ca. 1300, whereas the belfry and nave with wooden ceiling come from the second half of the 14th century.  Noteworthy among the artistic relics are an eightarmed chandelier from 1710 and a large bell from 1499 (see Bau- und Kunstdenkmale der Provinz Westpreu§en, pp. 254-256, also given there is a sketch of the church).   The pastors here [as their names appear in sources] were: 1) Johannes, plebanus in Sobcow (Pom. Ur. B. von Perlbach, No. 670), 1309; 2) Jan Butow, 1483; 3) Bartlomiej a Biecz, 1578; 4) Wawrzyniec Smugatius, 1635; 5) Marcin Smiglewski; 6) Albert Jozef Korpalewski, Tczew dean, 1682; 7) Jerzy Piotr Jesionowski, 1693; 8) Ignacy Rogaczewski, 1716-in 1718 he became the pastor in Skorcz; 9) Franciszek Ruthen, 1718; 10) Pawel Lazarowicz; 11) Tomasz Muchowski, Tczew dean, 1750 (see Borek; Echo sepulchralia II, 618-621); 12) Wincenty Ignacy Schultz, 1780; 13) Andrzej Pomieczynski, 1848; 14) Aleksander Pomierski, 1861-1889; 15) Wojciech Ziemann, 1889.   As of 1687 the parish numbered about 600 souls.  The pastor owned 4 wlo kas [1 wlo ka = about 16.8 hectares, but this varied from one area to another] and 3 gardens; the teacher was the organist; there were 2 paupers living in the hospital (see Wizyt Madalinskiego, pp. 48-49).  In 1710 the village contributed a Mass tithe of 32 bushels of rye and the same amount of oats from 64 wlo kas; the pastor was supposed to collect 100 florins from the manor, but the money was not paid at that time (see Wizyt Madalin~skiego, pp. 167-169).  In 1780, besides the places named above, the following belonged to the parish: Brzezno, Lowiguz, Fyszbudy, and Kepa.   In the whole parish there were 2,141 Catholics and 46 non-Catholics, no Jews.   In the church library were the sermons of Faber, Steyn, Chleb duchowny, and others.   The pastor was Wincenty Ignacy Schultz, Wloclawek and Kruszwica canon and official of the Archdeanery of Pomerania; he stayed mostly at Szotland near Gdansk, where he maintained two curates.  Subkowy had 650 inhabitants (645 Catholic) (see Wizyt Rybinskiego, pp. 39-5 1).

History.  Subkowy, a "villa perampla" [very large village], as Borek writes, is among the oldest settlements in the area. During the reign of the Pomeranian princes Subkowy belonged to the Kujavian bishops.  In 1282 Mestwin transferred this village and several others to Bishop Alber (P. U. B. von Perlbach, No. 341).  Previously it had belonged to Michal, who, having switched sides during Mestwin's war with the Brandenburg margraves and joined his enemies, was exiled and his estates seized.  After Mestwin's death the family took steps to regain the property. During Przemyslaw's first stay in Pomerania in 1295 Michal's sons, Mikolaj, Jerzy, and Rudolf, along with their sons-in-law in Swiecie, filed suit against the Kujavian bishop, Wislaw.  But Przemyslaw ruled against them on the basis of Mestwin's document.  Subsequently, however, in 1300, Bishop Gerward paid Michal's three sons 60 grzywna in denarii, for which they renounced all claims to Subkowy.   This payment became the cause of a third suit in 1334 by Jerzy's sons and relatives, who showed some letter allegedly proving that the bishops held Subkowy only in pawn. The Swiecie judge Jan decided in the bishop's favor. From then on Subkowy remained peacefully in the bishops' possession until the annulment of the clergy's estates. In 1290 bishop Wislaw acquired Chelmno legal status for the village from Mestwin ("jure Theutonico locandam", see P.U.B. v. Perlbach, No. 465).  Its incorporation ensued in 1301.  In that year Bishop Gerward bestowed the office of soltys of Subkowy and Swaroz|yn on Henry, son of the Gniew soltys, and Jan de Lywnow for 92 grzywna in Torurn currency, for the purpose of settling this village under Chelmno law.   The soltysi could possess 4 free wl?kas and an inn, from which they were to pay 1 grzywna a year in St. Martin's honor. They were also to judge all matters, lesser and greater, but in the presence of the bishop's representative, and to keep for themselves every third penny from the fines... [Omitted: a long passage describing in detail feudal fees, tithes, and conditions of land ownership in the area during the 14th century. This material might be fascinating for students of medieval real estate and tax policy, but is unlikely to interest many of our readers].

It is clear from the documents that all the Pomeranian estates of the Wloclawek bishops were given to settlers. Only from the 16th century do we possess names of Subkowy's settlers, who leased the area near Narkowy (see Vol. VI, p. 911).  The audit of 1760 reports as follows regarding Subkowy: the Subkowy demesne in Tczew powiat had 3 folwarks, Sobkow, Milobadz and Mieszczynin [sic; this appears to be a variation of the name of the village Mieszczyn, which is presumably the village now called Miescin].  In Subkowy the 2-story brick palace rebuilt by Bishop Rozrazowski was tiled. There were 7 inns in the demesne: a) one in Sobkowce [sic] in the middle of the village, with a wloka of land free from taxes, the property of Wrobel, who received it from Lichota along with a 1678 grant from bishop Sarnowski; b) a second one at the same place, private property; c) one in Malinin; d) one in Mieszczyn; e) one in Milobadz; f) another in the same place; g) one in Brzez|no.  Beer was taken to these inns from the Sobkowy [sic] and Milobadz brewers, as well as distilled spirits from Subkowy.  The meadows and pasture-land in this demesne covered 588 morgs.  There were 6 soltys properties: two in Sobkowce [sic], one in Malinin, Milobadz, Brzez|no and Mieszczyn, each with two wloka's. The soltysi collected taxes from the peasants and were obligated to send out a mounted messenger with letters.  There were no forests in this demesne, straw and peat were burned. The villages in this demesne were: Subkowy, 68 wloka's; Brzez|no, 18; Milobadz, 29; Malinin, 26; Mieszczynin, 13.   Reverend Sikorski, a scholastic, leased this demesne for 14,000 Prussian zloty's (see Majatki biskupie by Rev. Kujota, p. 59).  A note in Documenta varia (manuscript in Pelplin, p. 74), undoubtedly dating from the 18th century, states: "This village was founded by the Teutonic Knights on 80 wloka's, of which the castle possesses 12; the curate 4, free from taxes, the soltys also 4 taxfree wloka's; each of the two inns has 1 wloka, and the remaining 58 are sown by the community of the whole village" (p. 74).  The local manor, which is splendid, was for a long time a sort of second residence of the bishops to whose diocese the Pomeranian archdeanery belonged.  They enjoyed staying there, especially after the people of Gdansk burned the bishop's palace at Go rce, near Gdansk, in 1414.  At the beginning of the 14th century the Brzesc wojewoda Albert visited the bishop here, and was named as a witness in the records of a suit from 1339 (Scr. rer. pruss., I, 793).  During the siege of Malbork in early August 1410 Bishop Jan received the Gdansk ambassador Konrad Letzkau.  It was surely due to the bishop's influence that Gdansk shortly afterward swore allegiance to the king (see Zeitschrift des westpreu§ischen geschichtlichen Vereins, 16, 68).  In 1626, during the first war with Sweden, King Zygmunt III and his retinue stayed with the bishop.  More than once new priests were ordained in the spacious local church, and 10 times the whole Pomeranian clergy gathered there for diocesan synods.  A separate home for the correction of the clergy was located by the bishop's residence.  The bishop's steward or starosta, usually some sort of church official, always resided there.  It was partially exempted from the tax on crops and poultry from the bishop's estates.   Today only traces of the bishop's palace remain, and the bishop's chapel was destroyed as well (Utrac. koscioly ks. Fankidejskiego, pp. 75-76).   According to Adlerhold the palace was already built by the 14th century, in the days of Charlemagne, by the Kujavian bishop Maciej I (1323-66), and later restored by Bishop Rozrazewski (1581-1600).

2) Subkowy, manor, same place, Radostowo gmina, parish church in the village of Subkowy; 4 houses, 35 inhabitants.

3) Subkowy, a fiscal demesne, same place, 1 km. from the manor, 258 hectares (219 cultivated, 15 meadows); in 1885 there were 8 houses, 20 chimneys, 118 inhabitants, 96 Catholic, 22 Protestant; cattle cultivation and a dairy.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Fall 1996 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America". (Nov 1998)

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Sumin

In documents, "Sumino". A village in Lipno county in the "Congress kingdom". In 1325 Franczko, called Schenko, together with his mother Clara and brother Adalbert, conferred a chapel on the Brothers of the Grave of Christ (the Miechovites) in their village Sumin, with the right of patronage and four hides of land, adding (at the same time?) 8 hides in the village of Konotop. The brothers were to receive a tithe in grain from the coloni (translator's note: coloni = kmieci: farmers with enough land, inventory and a horse, so as to be able to live off their land), free cutting in the forests, free pasturing and free fishing. -(Ulanow, dok. kuj. 305.20)

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890

Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net(Feb 2001)

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Sumin

Current administrative location: Sumin, Gmina Starogard Gdański, Powiat Starogard, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Summin, Kreis Prueßisch Stargard, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.

1) Gername name: Summin. In 1280, it was known as Somino. In 1648, it was known as Sumino. A knighty estate located in powiat Starogard. The post office, colony, and Catholic parish are located in Starogard Gdanski, which is 7.5 kilometers away. It lies by the lake of the same name (Sumin Lake). The folwarks of the estate are: Brzeziny (1 home with 24 inhabitants), Buchwalde (2 homes with 32 inhabitants), Lipy (3 homes with 55 inhabitants), Waldhaus buildings ( 1 home with 8 inhabitants), the Wygoda forestry (1 home with 8 inhabitants) and the Wygoda brickyard (1 home with 4 inhabitants). The total area that covers the entire estate equals 1240 hectares (763 hecatares of arable farmland, 100 hectares of meadows, and 150 hectares of forests). Likewise, the area totals 20 homes, 60 homesteads, and 340 inhabitants (185 Catholics and 155 Evangelical Protestants). The Evangelical Protestant school lists 66 souls. There is a steam distillery, mill, and brickyard. Also, there are sheep and cattle. According to tariffs from 1648, the amount of collection that was passed was double and triple the excise tax, Rembowski paid 29 florins (ob. Roczn. T.P.N. w Pozn., 1871, str. 174). According to tariffs in 1717, a simple tax of 2 złoty was placed on Sumin (ob. Cod. Belnensie w Peplinie, str. 83). Mesznego records indicate that the local parish collected 7 bushels of rye and 7 bushels of oats from here (od. Wizyt. Szaniawskiego z 1710 r., str. 110). In 1780, Sumin is listed with the following: Józefowo, Brzeziny, and Wygoda (125 Catholics and 47 Evangelical Protestants inhabitants). Also, Józef Grąbczewski was listed as the heir and lord high steward of Sumin (od. Wizyt. Rybińskiego, str. 249). In 1280, Duke Mestwin, the lawful heir, gave the sons of the Gotsalka family, Jakób and Luthard, the "Somino" estate, this helped to free his burden. Obligations are only required for the defense of the country. Serf disputes up to 300 denar. (don't know what that means) and the 6 that found themselves the inheritors of a fine were resolved and hence the penalties were levied. A dispute larger than yourself is arrogated. Permission must be sought to sell the estate to anyone, not exclusively the church or monastery. Dan of Świecie (ob. P.U.B. v. Perlbach, str. 267). Formerly there was a chapel built around 1740 by Tomasz Grąbczewski, it had a Prussian ensign. At that time the chaplain was Father Łukasz Kozikowski. In 1780, according to inspections by Bishop Rybiński, the chapel was in good condition (ob. "Utrac. kościoły", ks. Fankidejskiego, str. 246).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.586].

Translated by Al Wierzba, September 2010. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Surowe

A village on the river Omulew in Ostroleka county, Wach gmina, Myszyniec parish. It has 95 houses, 927 inhabitants, and 2,582 morgs of land. In 1827 there were 74 houses and 535 inhabitants. This village lies in the territory of the ancient Myszyniec forest; it is inhabited by Kurpie. It was part of the starostwo of Ostroleka. It was already in existence as of 1660.
[Br{onislaw} Ch{lebowski}, Vol. 11, page 598].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890, [Vol. 1, page 598]

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 2003 Rodziny.

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Święta

Current administrative location: Święta, Gmina Złotów, Powiat Złotów, Województwo Wielkopolskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Schwente, Kreis Flatow, Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder, Westpreußen, German Empire.

The German name is Schwente, in 1653 it was named Swięcin and Swięte. It is a village located in the powiat Złotow. The post office and Catholic parish are located in Złotowo (which is about ¾ mila away). It has a one class Evangelical Protestant school with 64 students and a two class Catholic school with 133 students. The landscape and area totals 2752 hectare, of that: 1892 hectares are farms, 197 hectares are meadows, and 160 hectares are woods.

In 1885, there were 188 houses and 236 homesteads with 1328 inhabitants (748 Catholics, 571 Evangelical Protestants, and 9 Jewish). At the colony of Nową Świętę there are 38 houses and 259 inhabitants.

In 1732 and 1752, privileges were granted to the local German mayor, with the condition that local seats are filled by Germans. The village was divided into German and Polish parts, which also had it's own mayors (ob. Der Kreis Flatow von Schmitt, str. 279). In 1695, Inspector Jezierski listed that there were 40 peasants in the colony. Also, the inspector indicated that the Mesznego records listed payments of 1 bushel of rye and 1/2 bushel of oats for empty włók (lan) and according to the contract, by great measure of Łobżenicki (ob. str. 58). Kś. Fr.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.689].

Translated by Al Wierzba, May 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Święte

Current administrative location: Święte, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Święte, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

2) A village and manor farm (folwark) located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. Święte belongs to the Koneck Parish. It is a distance of 8 verst from Nieszawa. Święte has 367 inhabitants. In 1827, there were 13 houses with 179 inhabitants. Also, there is a lake within the village.

In 1885, the Święte estate was comprised of the folwarks of Święte and Spoczynek. The Święte estate's land area was 1348 morgs: 793 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 126 morgs of meadows, 110 morgs of pasture, 234 morgs of forest, 36 morgs of water, and 49 morgs of barren land. There were 14 brick buildings, 7 wooden buildings, crop rotation was distributed among seven and twelve half fields, carpentry shop, windmill, and a peat deck.

The village of Święte has 43 settlements on 407 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Lewino has 9 settlements on 48 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Spoczynek has 6 settlements on 6 morgs of cultivated land. The village of Umierzyno Żołnowo has 19 settlements on 624 morgs of cultivated land.

In 1557, according to the regency in nearby powiat Breść, the ownership of land was portioned: the Grabski family had 10 łan, 6 crofts, 1 tenant farmer, and 6 craftsmen; Mikołaj Święcki had 3 łan and 1 croft; Jakub Nieszczewski had 1 łan; and Kacper Święcki had 2 łan and 2 crofts (Pawiński, Wielkp.,II,6).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.11, p.693].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Swietojansk

A village in the parish and rural district of Kopciowo, Sejny county. 38 versts from the town of Sejny with 5 houses and 26 people. In 1827, there were 4 houses and 18 inhabitants.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 11, p. 697/2].

Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England, Dorfleiv@aol.com (May 2004)

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Sylczno

Current administrative location: Sylczno, Gmina Parchowo, Powiat Bytów, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Schueltzen, Kreis Karthaus, Regierungsbezirk Danzig, Westpreußen, German Empire.

In 1780 it was called Silczna and by Kętrzyń it was called Silczno. The German name was Schueltzen, documents also list it as Seltz. It is a village located in powiat Kartuzy. It's post office is located in Wygoda. The village's Catholic Parish is located in Parchowo, which is about 1 mile from Siliczno. There are 15 tenant farmers and 5 crofts (enclosed sections of farmland). The area totals 1397 hectares of land (922 hectares of arable farmland, with an income of 2-35 marks). In 1885, there were 41 houses, 63 homesteads, 335 inhabitants, 298 Catholics, and 37 Evangelical Protestants.

In 1381, Siliczno belonged to the Mirachow wójtowstwa (county), but according to Polish law the plow fields were divided from which the village sołtys (mayor) or the starosta (govenor) received 2 free. The other plowed fields were charged rent, which equaled 12 skojców and a bushel of oats (od Zeitsch. d. Westpr. Gesch. Ver. VI, 40). In 1780, according to counts by inspector Rybiński, Siliczno has 116 inhabitants that were Catholics. The Parchowo Parish Mesznego records indicate that villagers contributed 14 bushels of rye and the same amount of oats (str.516). In 1710, inspector Szaniawski read that the Mesznego records indicated that the villagers contributed 12 bushels of rye and the same amount of oats (str.73).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.10, p.610].

Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Szadlowice

or Sadlowice, formerly Szawlowice, called Savlowycj in a document from 1282: an ecclesiastical village, pastorate, estate and settlement, Inowroclaw powiat, 7 km. northeast of Inowroclaw (post office and railway station), halfway to Gniewkowo, on the Poznan-Torun railroad; there are a parish and school in the village.

In a 1228 grant Conrad of Mazovia gave the Dobrzynski brothers Dobrzyn along with a bit of land on the right bank of the Wisla [Vistula river], part of Dabie opposite Dobrzyn, and Siedlce (Sedlce, Sedlec) near Inowroclaw (Dogiel, Cod. dipl., IV, 5); Pope Gregory IX confirmed this grant (Theiner, Mon., 1, 17).  What puzzles us in this list of settlements is the 10-mile jump from Dobrzyn in the area of Inowroclaw, but later grants of privilege bring us back close to Inowroclaw.  After joining with the Teutonic Knights the Dobrzynskis gave them their possessions.  In 1234, by virtue of Conrad of Mazovia's treaty with the Knights, they retained Siedlce, Orlow and Rojewo (Perlbach, Pr. Reg., n. 140). In 1237 Kujavian bishop Michal attests that the Teutonic Knights, instead of a tithe from Siedlce, were to pay an annual rent of 3 grzywnas to the church in Kujavian Wyszogrod (Perlbach, Pom. Urk., 52, and Kod. Dyp. Pol., II, 13).  It is this Siedlce of the Knights that the editors of the codices see as today's Szadlowice near Inowroclaw; but in 1282 Szadlowice's name was in the form Szawlowice. So this conjecture is without foundation.

Szadlowice at that time lay within the castellanate of Inowroclaw; its owner was the castellan of Wizna, Mikolaj, who gave it to the Wloclawek bishop Alber in exchange for Powsin in Czersk district (Kod. Dyp. Pol., 11, 103, and Damalewicz). In 1583 there were in Szadlowice 14 peasant fields, 2 soltys fields, 2 komornik fields, a zagrodnik, and a craftsman; the parish included Wiotesy or Wioteszki, no longer in existence. The Kujavian bishops owned Szadlowice up to the collapse of Poland; it was then seized by the Prussian government and incorporated into the Gniewkowo district office, then into the Inowroclaw demesne. St. Bartlomiej's church was in existence before 1597; a new, wooden church was erected in 1763 by Antoni Ostrowski, bishop of Wloclawek, and Jan Borucki, the local curate. The parish (in Gniewkowo deanery), numbering 1,000 souls, consists of: Edwinowo, Latkowo, Raclawice, Skalmirowice, Slofisko, Szawfowice and Wickowice. Since 1797 the Brothers of Divine Providence have been at the church. The village and pastorate form a circle [or "district"] with 32 houses, 371 inhabitants (348 Catholic, 23 Protestant) and 556 hectares (447 under cultivation, 80 of meadows). The manor of the bishops' grange has 6 houses, 113 inhabitant (97 Catholic, 16 Protestant) and 260 hectares (238 under cultivation, 7 of meadows); there is a cattle-lot.  The settlement of Szadlowice (4 houses, 60 inhabitants) is part of the Wierzchostawice manoral region. Edmund Callier.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw[Vol. 11, p. 763-764].

Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1996-1997 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America" (Mar 1999)

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Szatkancy

A village in the parish of Lejpuny, rural district Kopciowo, Sejny County. It is 33 versts from Sejny with 9 houses and 94 inhabitants. In 1827, there were 5 houses and 57 inhabitants and it was in the parish of Sereje.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1893, vol. 11, p. 808].

Translated by Dorothy Leivers, Hadlow, Kent, England, Dorfleiv@aol.com (May 2004)

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Szczuczyn

Szczuczyn [now Scucyn, in Belarus] called Szczuczyn Litewski, "Lithuanian Szczuczyn," a town on the Szczuczynka river, in Lida powiat, in the 3rd political district, center of a gmina and rural district, at 53 degrees 36' north and 22 degrees 18' east, on the mail route from Wilno to Grodno, a distance of 52 km. southwest of Lida [now in Belarus] and 146 km. from Wilno [Vilnius, Lithuania]. It has 123 houses, 1,088 inhabitants (as of the year 1866), an Orthodox parish church of brick, a Catholic church, a Jewish house of prayer, a parish school (78 boys and 6 girls in 1885). It is the site of the headquarters of its political administrative district and of its gmina, and has a pharmacy, a post office, a market every Sunday, and fairs on August 15 and October 16. The Catholic parish church of Jesus Christ was built of brick in 1829 by Prince Drucki-Lubecki. Before that there was a Catholic church in Szczuczyn made of wood, St. George's, which eventually fell into ruin. The Catholic parish, in the deanery of Lida, has 2,057 faithful. It had a chapel in Jatwisk. The Orthodox parish, Szczuczyn deanery, has 901 faithful. The Orthodox deanery of Szczuczyn [the exact term is blagoczynia, in the Orthodox church a provostry], comprises 10 parishes: Szczuczyn, Dziembrowo, Dzikuszki, Glebokie, Orla, Ostryna, Rakowiec, Sobakince, Turejki, and Wasiliszki, and it includes 10 Orthodox churches, 9 chapels, and 25,795 souls.

The gmina belongs to the 2nd district for peasant affairs, 2nd conscription district, and the 2nd judicial district, consisting of three rural districts (Szczuczyn, Krasne and Iszczolno), with 56 inhabited localities, 412 homesteads, and 6,596 peasant residents. The rural district includes the town of Szczuczyn and the following villages: Bale 1 and 2, Bartosze, Bujwicze, Dogi, Dubrowlany, Gierniki, Kulaki, Lack, Micary, MurawiÑwka, Nowosiolki, Ogrodniki, Planty, Podgajniki, Rogacze, Rzeszotniki, Topoliszki, Turowka, Worony, Wyzgi, Zaguny, Zarzecze, Zylicze, and the colony of Turya, for a total of 836 souls as of the year 1865, according to the rewizja.

Szczuczyn formerly belonged to the Scypio family, who, according to Balinski (Star. Polska, III), supposedly endowed a Piarist college and founded schools there. A 1726 resolution confirmed the Piarist college in Szczuczyn, and gives the name of its founder as Hlebicki-Jozefowicz, Polock wojski. The Piarists settled near the parish church, and, with the permission of the episcopal consistory, took possession of the secular priests' parsonage with all incomes and buildings. The Piarist college in Szczuczyn was quite prominent, and supported a Piarist seminary and academies, in which even Oriental languages were taught. In the year 1755 the college president was Lukasz Rosocki, professor of oriental languages. The other professors were: Kanty Wykowski, history; Jozef Szaniawski, theology; Eustachy Kurowski, moral studies; Wincenty Kloss, natural history; Jozef Ketrzynski, logic and metaphysics; and Wojciech Komorowski, elocution and poetry. In the year 1742 Teresa Scypio, n³e Hlebicki-Jozefowicz, the wife of the castellan of Smolensk, established a congregation of the Sisters of Charity there and founded a hospital. The educational committee for organizing national schools elevated the Szczuczyn school to the rank of sub-faculty [podwydzialowy] with three classes. After the Scypio's, Szczuczyn was transferred to the princes Drucki-Lubecki, in whose possession it remains to this day. - J[ozef] Krz[ywicki].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11, p. 864-865].

Translated by Barbara Proko, Boulder, CO and edited by Fred Hoffman. From the PGSA Summer 1998 Bulletin.

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Szczwanica

Two villages well known for their climate and health spa in the admistrative district (pow.) of Nowy Targ, under 38 degrees 9' long. geographically from F and 39 degrees 25' North lat.

Szczwanica Nizna is at the stream Russia also known as Grajcar(rt side in flow of Dunajec) and on stream Slotnica (inflow of Russia Stream). The lowest point of the village is 427 meters above sea level. The paved road extends to the west along the right bank of Stream Russia which flows into the Miedzus Valley, where the lower health spa is. Near gardens and wooden single or doubles houses like in Switzerland style, reaches road to the higher health spa, further to east you will come to valley known as Szczwanica Wyzna. There is a wooden church and beautiful small manor together with farm houses and farm equipment.

Szczwanica Wyzna lays at the inflow of the stream Sopotnica to Russian Stream (470 meters above sea level).   In the valley of both villages and health spa to the west surrounds magnificent strand Pieniny Mountains , to the south between Dunajec and gorge Poprad starts borderline between Galicia and Hungary.  From north Szczawnica Wyzna is hidden by ranges of mountains without specific name. They are covered with forest bog. These ranges are scattered between Dunajec and Poprod, looking from South Nowy Sacz Valley. As you walk from West to East you will come upon the highest points which are Blisur (833 meters), Zwonkowka (984 meters), Obidzna(892m.), Skalka (1198 M), Prehyba Wielka (1195m) and Radowa (1265m). These high points stretch about 4 to 6 km apart from Szczawnica. They protect the warm climate from north winds.

To the south from Szczawnica toward the east stretches steep mountains, Siodelki where upon evergreen grows and in between down below you can see hills with leaf forest. These hills protect Miedzius from South and they end at Polanica- a dome-like mountain. From Polanica to north of Szczwanica and Nowy Sacz hills is a beautiful view and to south of villages from Hungarian side. From Polanica to East is the tallest Jarnula(817m) and from here to south east is Rabszlyn (899m) together they look like ruins of the ancient castle.

From Rabszlym to east and south of Jaworki village stretch limestone mountains Skalka (1052m) also known by common people as Little Pieniny. Closer mountain from southside is volcanic Bryjarka with steep peak covered with snap -off rocks. From the health spa the peak can be seen from all sides, with the help of Father Kazimierz Skrzynski a huge iron cross on top, which was built in 1865.

The view to the west is cut off by Sokolica which is to the left of Dunajec. Szczwanica Nizna in 1880 yr had 132 houses and 732 people. (345 men & 369 women); 692 Roman Catholics and 21 Jews. Szczwanica Wyzna with majority of land had 387 houses; 1441 people (708 men & 733 women); 1318 Roman Catholics, 16 Greek Catholics and 106 Jews.

Mountain people known as "Spiszcy Gorale" were Christians. They dressed in their goralskie costumes which were very colorful.

Wladyslaw & Tylus Szalaya owned most of the land; 1772 morgi ( unit of land in Galacia- 1 morg= 1.422 acres) From this they had 122 mr of farmland, 161 mr fields, 3 mr fenced and 10 mr pasture, 1471 mr of forest. Concrete one story palace with wooden pavilion in Swiss style and there was a garden, very well kept that surrounded the manor house. There was a small pond with artificial fountain. There are beautiful and unique trees: Sycamore, Tulip tree, Life tree, Sumac, Copper beech, American pine, weeping ash.  Further away is a church, a rectory and houses built from wood covered with wooden shingles facing south with large windows to let the light shine in and the farming buildings. Sometimes these houses have more than one room so that they can be rented to visitors if the spas don't have enough space.

Country folk had 1337 mr of farmland, 682 mr fields mostly on flat land between the mountains. They were called polany:732 mr pasture land on hills of mountains and 2278 mr of forest.  Only wild oats grew in this soil, unless the soil was prepared very well. Then rye and barley may grow. Wheat seldom grew. Village had a school, mill, sawmill and brick foundry. The health spa had a post and telegraph office. Beside the church that was erected in 1550 there are 3 chapels:

At Miedzius, at the high spa and at cemetery and soon a concrete church will be done between two villages; at high spa and Miedziusu.

A long time ago, a blacksmith shop existed in Szczwanica in which multiple and bigger steel projects were done. It is closed now. Up to 1870 this parish belonged to Kroscienko. In both Polish and Latin curious documents from the XIV exist that Wyszga lord Janina owned Czorsztyn, Rytra and Lyemyansz Castle . Written about dug-out gold mines in Pieniny, he writes about Szczwanica (a Crosczenko dug-out at Szczwania Wyzna). Dlugosz (writer from Krakow) doesn't mention anything about Szczwanica.

In the year 1550, a parish was created in Szczwanica.  In a chronicle that was written in 1581 (Pawinski, Malopolska 145) writes that Szczwanica has only 5 1/2 Lan (a field cultivated about 40 acres in size) Kmieci and 4 zagrodnikow with no land.

Up to 1811 all this belonged to the castle and ancient nobility of Czorstyn. Szczwanica is 7 kilometers from Kroscienko, from Piwniczna, 16 km in straight line. Even today the road is bad because of steep hills, the road that is plotted will be 20 km from Stary Sacz in straight line is 20 km. The road goes past Dunajec and because of winding of the river is 41.2 km long.  The shortest distance through Kadcza and Obidza is 30 km long, steep and rocky and difficult. The spa started in 1828 yet it existed before that just as the village Szczwanica. There are 7 springs: Jozefin Szczepan discovered in 1838 by Josephine Szalaya (died 1838) owner of the village and builder of the spa. Magdalena 1838 & Waleria done in 1840. Four of the springs are in the high spa at the foot of Swiatkowki.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: Patricia Smith, 928 Turkey Inn Rd., Ligonier, PA 15658 (Dec 1997)

Translated by: Rose Szczech

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Szelejewo

-in 1145 Selevo, 1357 Schlewo, 1361 Szelewo, 1580 Sielewo; village in Mogilno County, 3 Km south of Gasawa (parish and stagecoach station at the old Gniezno macadam road. School on the spot, railway station in Mogilno 16 km. Together with Roza Gora and Budy Szelejewskie makes a rural district of 52 homes, 417 inhabitants (367 Catholics, 38 Evangelics and 12 Jews), has 108 3hectares (813 arable land, 86 meadows). Royal land was granted to men of merits since Mieszko I, earliest written record known 1145.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1890 

Submitted by: Alice Nelsen, 2404 Belair Drive, Bowie, MD 20715 (Feb 1997)

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Szezciowloki

A village in the Suwalki powiat, Wizajny district and parish. Distance from Suwalki is 26 verst (approximately 28 km). Has 13 houses, 102 residents. In 1827 there were 12 houses, 85 residents. Entered in the government property structure of Kadaryszki.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1890, vol. 11]

Translated by Peter Wessner, PSG Texas Polish Footprints, Spring 2001 Periodical

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Szumowo

Szumowo, also Szumowa- Szumowski, Lomza gmina, previously called Somowa (in 1240 - Somowo) or Somowa Gora (mountain) (in 1420 Somowagora) the name was derived from the surname Som=Sum who leased the place.

Source: Slownik Etymologiczny Miast i Gmin PRL 

Submitted by: Don Szumowski, 2211 Ontario Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20009 (Feb 1997)

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Szydl~owiec

Szydlowiec, village, Mielec county, amidst a pine forest, at the headwaters of the Babulówka (a tributary of the Wisla, near Baranów). Roman Catholic parish in Ostrowy Tuszowskie; situated 5 kilometers to the east from Mielec, it lies on a plain at an elevation of 182 meters above sea level. The larger estate (that of Mojesz Hermel) comprises of 42 farms, 19 meadows, 1,430 forests, 12 mórgs of sandy dunes; the lesser estate has 115 farms, 58 meadows and gardens, 14 pasturelands, and 19 mórgs of forest. The village has 24 houses, 160 inhabitants (85 men, 75 women); 153 Roman Catholics and 7 Jews. The nearest settlement to the northwest is Wola Chorzelowska, on the southeast is Toporów. This village in the first tax collection list of 1662 (Pawinski, Malopolska, 55a) was registered as belonging to the parish in Mielec. This portion of the backwoods of Sandomiersz forest only became inhabited in the 17th century.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Volume XII, Pages 100-101- Warsaw 1890 

Submitted by: Anthony Paddock, 5015 Birney Ave., Moosic, PA 18507

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Szymbory

1) a settlement in the district of Nowominski, township of Chroscice, parish of Kaluszyn. It had 30 inhabitants with 47 acres of land.

2) an area of noble families in the district of Mazowiecki, township of Szepietowo, parish of Jablon Koscielna. In this area can be found three villages: 1) Szymbory Andrzejowieta - in 1827 it had 13 houses and 89 inhabitants, 2) Szymbory Jakubowieta - in 1827 it had 14 houses and 73 inhabitants, and 3) Szymbory Wlodki - in 1827 it had 14 houses and 73 inhabitants. It is mentioned as early as 1527 in the court deeds of that year (source: Zygmunt Gloger - The White Land).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1892

Submitted by: Jerry Gieraltowski - gieraltowski@lucent.com (April 1998)

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