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Cerekwica

A village in powiat Wagrowiecki (currently Zninski), 15 homes / farmsteads, 131 inhabitants all of whom are Catholic, 44 are illiterate. There is a Catholic Church Sw. Mikolaja, a part of the dekanet of Rogowskiego.

A Dominion or Manor Farm in powiat Wagrowiecki, 3290 morgs of tillable fields and gardens, 10 homes / farmsteads, 240 inhabitants, 20 Protestant , 220 Catholic, 84 are illiterate. There is a Post Office at Znin a distance of 6 kl. , and a Railway station at Trzemeszno about 28 kl. Distant. The Manor is the property of the Rogalinski family.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego p. 534 - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Jim Piechorowski (PGSA member 6005/6051), October 2005

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Chabówka

Chabówka (of Holendrami), a village, in the district of Myślenice, on the river Raba, about 3.4 kilometers from Rabka, in the Rabka parish.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego volume 1, page 538, Warsaw 1880

Translated by John Rys, Woodbury MN and Terri DiCarlo.

Family surname of interest: Zmuda

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Chełmy

A knightly village in Chojnice county, north of the town of Chojnice. It exists from early times. In 1377 Winryk von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Knights of the Cross, conferred half of this village on a certain Waclaw by Chelm law; the other half on Lowisz and his brothers. In the document it occurs as lying in Chelm territory . . . ierlu~no lake, Feczik the Flancowa stream. (Note: maybe I failed to copy something in the original Polish.) In the eighteenth century the iezierski's possessed Chelmy. They maintained a private chapel in the manor-house. In 1780 Michal Ewald-Jezierski kept a private chaplain, Marjan Kobielski, of the rule of St. Augustine, out of Chojnice, at the chapel. Presently the Sikorski's possess this spacious estate.

For the longest time two separate knightly estates have been differentiated in Chelmy:

1) Wielkie Chelmy, which has its own Catholic school and whose size is 13,337 morgs; which has 14 dwelling houses and 205 inhabitants - all Catholic.

2) Male Chelmy, of the parish of Brusy, occupying 8,748 morgs; it has 56 dwelling houses, 512 Catholics and 4 Lutherans

It is worth noting that at Chelmy in recent times were discovered extensive stone pagan tombs, singly and in groups, which speak even more for the antiquity of this settlement. -Ks. F.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2001)

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Chlewiska

Current administrative location: Chlewiska, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego):Chlewisk , Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

3) Chlewiska has a manor, folwark, and colony that are located powiat Inowrocław and gmina Inowrocław. the manor has 1131 morgs of cultivated land, the folwark belongs to the Chlewiska Parish, and the colony has 20 houses with 205 inhabitants (65 Evangelical Protestants, 136 Catholics, and 4 Jewish). There are 92 inhabitants that are illiterate. The Chlewiska Parish and church belong to the deanery of Gniewkowo. The post office is located 2 kilometers from Dąbrowa (German name: Louisenfelde). The railway station is located 10 kilometers away in Gniewkowo (German name: Argenau).

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.584].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Chocholow

- in the county of Nowy Targ

The village in the Podhale region borders from the west with the Orawa region, specifically with the districts of Suchahora and Hladowka; from the north with Podczerwone, the east with Ciche, and the south with Dzianisz and Witow. The village lies in a narrow valley on the right bank of the Czarny Dunajec river.

From the west in the south section of the village is a hill called Krowiarka (elevation of 905 meters) with few homes near the stream Domagala that creates a border with Chocholow and Witow. The slopes of the hill taper to the north where they become wetland bogs.The east side stretches along to Chocholow at an elevation of 896 meters. The west slope of the hill in Chocholow is known as Za Borki.

The Czarny Dunajec river flows in several directions. The road from Witow to Chocholow has a bridge over the Czarny Dunajec that is at 774 meters in elevation.

The village began in the 16th century. It was started by an honorable man, Bartlomiej Chocholowski, on virgin territory. He was named the perpetual administrator for his distinction during the war, during the reign of King Stefan Batory. Zygmunt III continued the privilege for Bartlomiej.

Documents from 1776 indicate a Roman Catholic church belonging to the deanery of Nowy Targ. The villages belonging to the parish are: Kaniowka 1.8 km away with 1060 souls, Ciche with 1240 souls, Dzianisz 7.5 km away with 1060 souls, and Witow 3.5 km away with 665 souls. Chocholow alone had 900 souls divided between 456 men and 444 women. In the parish the total number of people were 4215 Catholics and 40 Jews. Before 1817 these villages belonged to Czarny Dunajec. The first church was built about 1600 was constructed of wood. It actually started as a chapel, facing east, and in time was enlarged, becoming part of the nave. Later an addition was built and then in 1780 a tower was constructed by vicar Jan Babicki. The early church did not contain anything unusual. The first decoration noted from 1872 is a two by two feet picture on a 4 inch plank of the Holy Trinity and it has two doors one by two foot that are divided in half to create four quarters that present the life of Christ and all Saints. The doors can swing and cover the center picture. The church is decorated with two lime trees, they grew to an elevation of 770 meters. Nearby a concrete church was built with cut stone in a Gothic style and was blessed on 14 June 1874. This church was funded by Fr. Albert Blaszynski. the pastor from Sidzina. He was born in Chocholow, the son of Joseph and Rose Blaszynski in 1806. He began collecting money from the surrounding territory and encouraged workers to help. The rock-hard coal foundation was set on 17 August 1833 according to a plan from Krakow by Felix Ksiezarski. He was able to come and personally participate in the work as he was living in Sidzina only 5 km away. The walls were done in 1866 and then a tower and a copper roof was added. On August 11th a scaffold by the tower was being taken apart and one of the boards fell and hit the priest in the head killing him instantly. After his death, Fr. Thomas Kosek continued with the rest of the construction. He was once the vicar of Chocholow, and is now the pastor in Ptaszkowa. The church is unique, built in the shape of a cross with three naves. The length of the church from the entry to beyond the altar is 37 meters, the middle shoulder of the cross is 22 meters and a height of 16.5 meters. A side nave is 7.5 meters. The tower has three levels reaching 47 meters to the tip of the bell. The church’s name was St. Hyacinthus.

Chocholow is 24 km from Nowy Targ. There is a post office in Czarny Dunajec 9.5 km in the distance. The farmland is 2027 morgs and is of poor quality. It also has fields, gardens, pastures in the mountains but no forests. There are 181 houses in the Gmina.

Chocholow became famous in 1846 when Fr. Joseph Kmietowicz and organist John Andrusikiewicz defended this small corner of Podhale during the 1846 Insurrection.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted and Translated by: Rose Szczech (Apr 1998).

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Chomiaza Koscielna

Currently Chomiaza Ksieza.

(1) … A village in the Powiat of Szubin , that was the property of the Catholic Church of Znin; 1466 morgs of fields and gardens on the shores of the lake; 16 farmsteads / homes, 203 inhabitants, 22 protestant, 181 catholic, 58 illiterate.

The Catholic Church located in the dekanat / deanery of Znin was erected in 1357; it is currently standing in 1831. There is a Post Office in Barcin a distance of 10 klm and a Railroad station in Mogilno a distance of 21 klm.

(2) … Chomiaza Szlachecka.
Gmina / Dominion (Large Manorial Farm) in the Powiat of Szubin about 8 klm to the south of Chomiaza Koscielna (currently) Chomiaza Ksieza along and above the lake; 5592 Morgs of tillable fields an gardens; there are 4 localities

(1) .. Chomiaza Szlachecka (Domain)
(2) .. Folwark Grzmiaca
(3) .. Gasawaka
(4) .. Tuczynek

19 farmsteads / homes, 309 inhabitants, 21 prostentant, 288 Catholic, 188 illiterate. There is a Post Office at Gasawa a distance of 11 klm and a Railroad Station at Mogilno a distance of 13 klm. This is the property of the Lewandowski Family.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Jim Piechorowski, PGSA Member #6005/6151, July 2005; families: Piechorowski / Piechurowski

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Chorkowka

Link to PGST translation - text and photos.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw. Translated by Martin Kurtin.

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Chorzele

- the county of Lomza

In 1578 it had 4 lans (1 lan unit of cultivated land was 71/2 to 32 acres) divided into 4 sections.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego Addendum- Warsaw 1900

Submitted by: Joseph Dressel, 5641 N. Kenmore Ave., Chicago, IL (Nov 1997).

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Chorzele

- in the County of Przasnysz

A settlement, formerly a small town, in Przasnysz county, on the right bank of the river Orzyc, in Chorzele gmina and parish, on the Prussian border. It is located at latitude 53° 15’9" north, longitude 20° 54' east [Translator’s note—the longitude given in the original is reckoned by an archaic system measuring longitude from Ferro; I’ve replaced it with the modern value, measured from Greenwich]. It is 124 km. from Warsaw, 122 from Plock, and 35 from Przasnysz.

The town was built in 1542, during the reign of Zygmunt I, and received a German-law municipal charter in 1551. It received grants from Jan Sobieski in 1690, August III in 1757, and Stanislaw August in 1776. It declined during the Swedish wars and the expeditions of Napoleon. It declined even more after the latter, and lost the title of miasto [town].

It has 2,883 inhabitants—1,458 men, 1,425 women—(251 houses, 2 of brick), two-thirds Jews and one-third members of the Kurpie people and Prussians, mainly craftsmen and farmers. In 1827 there were 184 houses and 1,684 inhabitants; but in 1860 there were 186 houses and 2,032 inhabitants, 1,119 of them Jewish. There was trade in oxen and horses with Prussia. Each year 6 fairs are held, and every other week there are 2 markets, on Tuesday and Friday. Trade is controlled by the Jews.

In the settlement are: the gmina administrative offices and the office of the wojt; the border with Prussia, across which ex-ports in 1876 goods came to 220,143 silver rubles and imports were worth 15,875 silver rubles; an elementary school; five wind-mills; two breweries; 18 shops; 10 taverns; an inn for travelers; a pharmacy; and a Catholic parish church belonging to the deanery of Przasnysz, founded by Bona and renovated in 1878. Previously Chorzele, as a village, belonged to the parish of Krzyno-wloga Wielka. Today the parish of Chorzele has 6,104 souls. (The gmina of Chorzele belongs to the gmina court district III in Krzynowloga Wielka and has a population of 3,000).

In the village of Jednorozec near Chorzele, members of the Kurpie people established and endowed a parochial vicarage for themselves, with a small wooden church.

The Chorzele estate has an area of 3,250 morgs and is owned by the govern-ment. The Chorzele manorial farmstead has 544 morgs of land; the village of Chorzele had 22 settlements, 96 morgs.

In the gmina of Chorzele and other northern points on the Prussian border is a Mazurian tribe called the Poborzanie, and in the eastern part of the district one en counters villages populated by the Kurpie, although in Przasnysz county proper the only gminas actually populated by the Kurpie are those of Baranowo, Jednorozec, and Zaremby.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1880, vol. 1, p. 634].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Winter 2003 Bulletin.

The village settlement has a parish church. It is taxed 6 florine. It measures 32 1/2 wloka (1,650 acres = 1 wlok). There are 4 distillery boilers, 2 wheelwrights, 2 coopers, 3 potters, 1 cartwright, 1 joiner, 1 blacksmith, 3 tailors, 8 cobblers, 1 butcher, 8 bakers, and 2 carpenters. Pomscibor Szumski is the village head. It also has 2 stoves for pitch.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego Addendum- Warsaw 1900

Submitted by: Joseph Dressel, 5641 N. Kenmore Ave., Chicago, IL (Nov 1997).

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Chorzele Jaskolki

- in the County of Lomza

It is a village of gentry and peasants that is part of the Zambrowo parish. In 1827, there were 14 houses and 109 inhabitants. Long ago, there was also a village Chorzele Sulkowstok. Chorzele is the family nest of the Chorzelski's and is mentioned in documents of 1476 (Gloger).

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted by: Joseph Dressel, 5641 N. Kenmore Ave., Chicago, IL (Nov 1997).

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Chorzelo~w

- in the County of Mielec

The village of Chorzel ow (along with Borki, Berdechowo, Mocisk, Chrzastowek) are 3,595 morgs in area, of which 1,462 morgs is farmland and 1,397 morgs is forest: there are 184 houses and 1,943 inhabitants; the parish is located in the Mielec Deanery (4,985 faithful). Chorzelw was for a time part of the Mielec parish, but became a separate parish in 1854. It is not known when the parish church of wood, called All Saints was built, but it was consecrated in 1596 by Thomas Oborski, sufragan bishop of Krakow. The parish records are from the year 1612.

An institution for the poor was established by Stanislaw, Count of Morsztyn: the institution's assets: 6,000 zloty in obligations and a house of wood; a public school, with one room; and a distillery. In his estate, the owner, Count Jan Tatnowski (Chorzelowski) maintains a remarkable breed of horses and even produces horses for racing. Known throughout Europe are the horses Meteor and Przedwit from the Chorzelowski stables.

Chorzelow lies in a plain along the boundary from Debice to Nadorzez, 3.2 kilometers from Mielec. The soil is fertile and rye is grown.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted by: Joseph Dressel, 5641 N. Kenmore Ave., Chicago, IL (Nov 1997).

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Chotomo~w

Village, Warszawa powiat, Jablonna gmina, Chotomow parish. It lies on the Nadwislanski railway line [Ed. Note - nadwislanski means "on the Vistula"], on the road from Jablonna to Olszewnica. It has a brick parish church, and a post office in Jablonna. In 1827 there were 21 homesteads there, 214 inhabitants; Chotomow parish, in the Warszawa deanery, has 2,099 souls, and was established in 1418.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the Winter 1995-1996 issue of "Bulletin of the Polish Genealogical Society of America" (Nov 1997).

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Chraplewo

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880, vol. 1, p. 642

1) Chraplewo, a village located in the powiat of Bukowski containing 12 houses and 98 inhabitants. There are 10 Protestant, 88 Catholic and 38 illiterate.

2) Chraplewo, a Manor farm in the powiat of Bukowski containing 3148 morgs of open land, 23 house and 281 inhabitants . There are 63 Protestants, 198 Catholics and 9 illiterate.  There is a Post Office at Kuslin which is 5km distant and a Catholic exists at Opalenica 12km distant . The estate is the property of Seweryn Bninski.

3) Chraplewo , an estate in Szubin county; 2,582 morgs of land, 11 houses, 181 inhabitants, all Catholic, 80 illiterate. [It is served by] the post office in Retkowo, 4 km. away, and the railroad station in Naklo, 28 km. away. It is the property of Ponikiewski.

4) Chraplewo , an oledry* in Szubin county; 2 houses, 12 inhabitants, 2 Protestant, 10 Catholic, 5 illiterate.  [ M. St{udniarski} ]

* [Translator's Note: In Volume 3, on page 99, Bronislaw Chlebowski wrote this entry to define the term holendry or oledry : "Holendry or Oledry (Hollaender), a name for settlements established mainly in river valleys with numerous meadows and pastures favorable for raising livestock and dairy production. They originally got this name from emigrants from Frisia (Holland), who willingly resettled in Poland in the 16th century, seeking protection from religious persecution (they were Mennonites), initially in Zulawy, where they were given land in exchange for paying rent. Later all kinds of settlements were called Holendry, even those established by Poles under similar conditions. Within the Kingdom of Poland we most often encounter Holendry on the river Warta in the counties of Konin and Slupca, also in valleys on the Wisla. The derivation of this name from Haulaender (grubbers), as given by the famed Prussian historian Wuttke and repeated after him in Polish academic works, is mistaken. Wuttke wanted to elevate the significance and dimensions of German colonization in Poland. The name Holendernia, given to barns designated for cattle, originated with these settlers." There is also information on this term on this page:  http://www.polishroots.org/history/Dutch_Populace.htm

Submitted and translated by: Jim Piechorowski (April 2005)

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Chromowola

Current administrative location: Chromowola, Gmina Koneck, Powiat Aleksandrów, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Chromowola, Powiat Nieszawa, Gubernia Warszawske, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

Also known as Chromowa Wola. A village and manor farm (folwark) located in powiat Nieszawa and gmina Straszewo. Chromowola belongs to the Koneck Parish. It is a distance of 168 verst from Warszawa, 10 verst from Nieszawa, and 5 verst from Aleksandrów. The village was acquired in 1853 for 19,150 rubles. It has a total area of 625 morgs, notably: 485 morgs of arable farm and garden land, 74 morgs of meadows, 33 morgs of pasture, 8 morgs of forests, and 29 morgs of wastelands. There are 13 1/2 field crop rotations. There are 6 brick buildings, 4 wooden buildings, and peat deposits. The Chromowa Wola village has 20 settlements on 58 morgs of land.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.645].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Chróstowo

Current administrative location: Chróstowo, Gmina Dąbrowa Biskupia, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Chrostowo, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

2) Chróstowo is a village located powiat Inowrocław. It has 18 houses with 191 inhabitants (17 Evangelical Protestants and 174 Catholics). There are 61 inhabitants that are illiterate.

The parish information was not listed in the entry. The village is located about 1 mile from the Chlewiska Parish, about 2 miles from both the Dąbrowa Biskupia Parish and the Sędzin Parish, and about 3 miles from the Straszewo Parish.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.647].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Chrząstowo

Current administrative location: Chrząstowo, Gmina Gniewkowo, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Eichthal, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

2) In 1878 it was also known as Eichthal (German name). A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Chrząstowo dominium has 1243 morgs of open area. The Chrząstowo dominium has 7 houses with 94 inhabitants (61 Catholics and 33 Evangelical Protestants). There are 43 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office and railway station are located in Gniewkowo (German name: Argenau), which is about 4 kilometers away.

The Słownik entry for Chrząstowo did not list a parish, but the Gniewkowo Parish is only located 4 kilometers away. It is highly possible that Chrząstowo belonged to the Gniewkowo Parish.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.653].

Translated by Al Wierzba, November 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Ciche

- in county of Nowy Targ

The village is divided between two parishes; Chocholow and Czarny Dunajec. It lies in the valley along the stream Ciche. It stretches 10 kilometers from south to north; 4 kilometers from Chocholow, 7 kilometers from Czarny Dunajec, and 18 kilometers from Nowy Targ. From the southeast along the stream it stretches from the Ostrysz hills and declines all the way toward the north to the Zaborski stream; the highest peak is 1025 meters, north above Zaborski (861 meters). From the west there are smaller hills “Gorki” (844 m). Three districts, Dzianisz, Ciche and Zubsuche, lie south of the village where both of these hills meet. The northern part is called Mietustwo, derived from the original owner Mietus, chief of the village Ciche.

There is a concrete chapel in the village under the name N.M.P (Church of St. Mary). A decree from the bishop of Tarnow dated 17 July 1875 permits mass in the chapel on holy days only through the next 10 years. The village has 376 houses with 2067 people, of which 1240 people belong to the parish in Chocholow and 827 people to the parish in Czarny Dunajec.

Plowed land (a small portion of the ownership) has 1897 hectares. Of that, the fields and gardens are 241, the pastures 333, the forest 94 hectares.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted by: Translated by Rose Szczech (Jan 1998)

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Cieślin

Current administrative location: Cieślin, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Cieslin, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

1) A village located in powiat Inowrocław. Cieślin has 3 houses with 30 inhabitants (all Catholics). There are 8 inhabitants that are illiterate.

2) A dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Cieślin dominium has an area of land equal to 1536 morgs. The Cieślin dominium has 9 houses with 176 inhabitants (173 Catholics and 3 Evangelical Protestants). There are 32 inhabitants that are illiterate. The post office and railway station are located about 5 kilometers away in Inowrocław. The Cieślin dominium, along with Radłowek, are owned by Franciszek Brzeski.

The entry did not list the village's parish. The Kościelec Parish is located about 3-4 kilometers away.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.693].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Ciosek

Also known as Ciosek Mlyn. A mill in the county of Zlotow or Zlotowo, 566 morgs in size. 3 dwellings, 36 inhabitants. Waldowo parish.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Ciszewie

Also known as Cisewie, Cissewie. A noble village in Chojnice county, on Czarna Woda river (Black Water), in the parish of Wiele. It existed in the time of the Pomeranian princes. The inhabitants governed themselves by old Polish law, which in 1323 Dytryk V of Lichtenhain, the komtur of Swiecie, changed into Chelm- or German- law. In his location document he mentions as lying between the borders of the village the lake Poblotnica, the river Bda (Brda), the stream Czernica, and lake Karsin. In place of the former levy called for the cow and pig which the inhabitants delivered to the princes according to Pomeranian custom, the komtur prescribed new taxes which extended to other villages as well. The size of Ciszewie today is 3166 morgs. There are 9 dwelling houses, 84 Catholics and 75 Lutherans. Ks. F.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Culm

In the spring of 1815, as a result of a request for colonization from the crown rulers of the Russian Germans who had immigrated into Poland, thegovernment authorities granted permission to establish a village in Bessarabia. The place for the development of the village was to be in a deep and wide valley at the foot of the highest place in Bessarabia. Soon after their arrival, the settlers would be able to build their homes (huts) of earth and reeds. However, it soon appeared to the village leaders that it would be better to locate the colony on the hill because fog could lock in the
unhealthy air in the valley.


Then the question was - can the hill provide adequate water supply for the colony? To explore this, a commission of 12 competent men was named whose mission was to examine various places to find out if adequate water was available. There was good news for the settlers when it was decided that there were excellent water springs in several places, so much so that there were swamps where several water sources flowed together. The result was that more settlers wanted to settle on the hill than in the valley.


The land that had been designated by the authorities lay more than half way up the hill and did not have much tillable land and the soil was found to be a mixture of alkali and sand which would not be very fertile. At other times, and because of construction of the colony in the valley, it was difficult to get the native grasses to grow and it was dangerous to drive down the steep hill with a loaded wagon.


After consideration of this and other land areas, a request was sent to the colony administration to allow development on the hill. The authorities granted permission on condition that adequate water was available. The next step then was to prepare for the development of the colony. During this time, wood, reeds and other building materials were provided by the crown and the building of the homes could begin by the fall of 1815. The settlers received adequate payment to build their own houses and could help others with the building of their homes.


Until suitable changes could be made, a flourishing meadow was watered by the flooding of the Kugelnik river. This river was 180W downstream from Moldavia, was fed by other hillside streams, winds thru the Kugelnick valley and enters an estuary of the Black Sea. The nearest district city was Akkerman to the south and the government headquarters was in Kischenew to the north, both at a distance of 100 W.


The land area of the colony is 6358 des(l7167 acres) and 2032 faden (14224 feet) with various soil conditions. At the top the soil is light which is very fertile when there is sufficient rain. In the very dry years, there is little production. At the same time, a recent flood in northern Bessarabia uncovered an area of 48 des (130 acres) and 232 faden (1624 feet) of oak forest. At thetime of the founding of the colony, this forest was only brush and wasn't replenished because of the annual burning of the steppe prairie. After a year and with good care, everything prospered. After the first year of the settlement, attention was given to the condition of the forest with theobjective being to restore the devastated forest by stripping the best wood and after a time, restoration of the forest received acceptable attention from the high authorities. From then on, the forest prospered and the settlers in the colony rejoiced at the restoration of the forest.


The present name of Culm was not the original name of the colony, it was Paulsberg, the name given by the colonial authorities. After a course of time,the name was changed to Culm as it has been called since that time. The reason for the change is unknown.


Originally there were 80 families that settled in the colony who came together from Poland, later 28 Wuerttenbergers from other established colonies settled in Culm to bring the total to 108 families. The majority of the settlers were born in Poland and their ancestors had been born in Prussia and had immigrated to Poland. The previous homeland of these ancestors was in the Posen Duchy and others from the districts of Plotzk, Kalish and Warshau. Only one family was from the Brandenburg province in Prussia. Most of the immigrants to the colony of Culm arrived by train in 1814 under the leadership of Gottfried Radach, nowdeceased. They found out that they were on their own on the steppe and found only 3 Moldavian huts. Complete houses were not available and only after 5 months delay were they able to begin building their homes.


The settlers received assistance with building supplies, wagons, plows, harrow, scythes and sickles from the government. Also supplied were household necessities such as pots, and pails. For livestock, a pair of oxen and a cow was provided. For food provisions, every month they received a pud (36#) of rye flour and at the beginning of the month each family received an oka (3#) of salt. Each family received 2 tschk (chetverik=45#) wheat, 1 tschk oats and1 tschk potatoes which provided seed for the 1816 planting. The settlers arrived with various possessions, property which included wagons and horses and from 400-1000 rubles, silver (in 1850 1 ruble, silver = 75 cents)
Since the transfer of the colony from the valley to the hill, there were not any changes in the dorf site and good health was enjoyed in the colony. There wasn't much noteworthy to mention since the beginning of the settlement but the earth quake of Feb, 1839 dried up good producing wells but there wasn't much other damage. In some of the springs, dry wells received water from the overflow. With regard to epidemics, the only one was cholera in July 1831. In one month, 30 people died most in the age range of 30-50 years. The disease was deadly, for example people could be healthy in the morning and working in the fields, suddenly became ill and were dead after a few hours.


Thru the years, prosperity grew, excellent production of cattle, horses and sheep and viniculture was especially profitable. In the 1ast years, the crop failures and cattle plague threatened the main food supply. Extra resources provided help and guaranteed the upkeep of the vineyards. Every time the settlers were disappointed, thru mediocrity and drought, money from the government and community taxes met the family needs. For many years, the farmers' productivity was meager with continuing drought and destructive insects which caused times when the family had only enough seed to provide food for the family and there wasn't any left to sell.CULM (no date) 1848.
Church school teacher and lay preacher: Christian Straub, writer the school examiners: Mayor- Peter Schulz First- Hildebrand Second- Schelski


Translated by La Rose Ketterling. Used with permission.

Copyright June 1997, La Rose Ketterling, PO Box 90, Mercer, ND 58559

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Cyckow/y

Also known as Cickow/y, Czyczkow/y, -owo. A peasant village in Chojnice county, parish of Brusy, a quarter mile from the beaten track between Chojnice and Koscierzyna. It existed at the time of the Pomeranian princes, and was established on Polish law. In 1359 the komtur of Tuchola Zygfryd von Gerlachshaim dropped Polish law for Chelm law. At that time there were 38 wloki. Presently Cyckowy has 6097 morgs, 72 dwelling houses, 700 Catholics and 14 Lutherans. The school is in the village.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Czajka

German Kiwitz, inn, Inowroclaw county, see Dziewa

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw

Submitted by: This translation, by William F. Hoffman, first appeared in the November 1998 issue of "Bulletin of the PGSA".

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Czapiewice.

A knightly village in Chojnice county. Parish and post office is in Brusy, 1/2 mile from the beaten track between Chojnice and Koscierzyna. Size is 3133 morgs. There are 41 dwelling houses, 334 Catholics, 6 Lutherans.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Czarna Dąbrowa

Current administrative location: Czarna Dąbrowa, Gmina Studzienice, Powiat Bytów, Województwo Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Czarndammerau, Kreis Butow, Regierungsbezirk Koslin, Westpreußen, German Empire.

2) The German name was Czarndammerau. It is a city in the regency of Koszalin. Located in powiat Bytów, Pomerania.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.738].

Translated by Al Wierzba, August 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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Czarne

In German Hammerstein. A town in Czluchów county, West Prussia. It lies on the Czarna (black) river, which gave it its name, and which the Germans nicknamed Zahne; one quarter mile from the province of Pomorze (Pommern), 3 miles from Czluchów, one half mile from Chojnice. Thru Czarne passes the new railroad between Chojnice and Wegorzyn, which has a station here. Beaten roads branch out from Czarne: on the west to Nowy Szczecin (Szczecinek, Neu Stettin) and to Bialobr; on the south to Frydland, on the north thru Rzeczca (Stegers) to Konarzyny and on the east to Czluchów. Czarne occupies 16,276.56 mórgs; contains around 687 buildings, dwelling houses 221. The population - all Germans in 1868 - was 2,517, among whom were 228 Catholics, 2,054 Evangelicals and the rest Jews. To the town belongs the huge forest Hardeibruch with a separate municipal forestry district.

The oldest charter of Czarne comes from the year 1395 from the Grand Master of the Knights of the Cross, Konrad von Jungingen. From of old Czarne had a fortified castle, in which the Knights of the Cross kept their wójt(1), dependent on the Komtur(2) in Czluchów. In 1423 a prince Henryk stayed with him along with the Czluchów Komtur. In 1433 Hussites were in the vicinity, and so alarmed everyone, that the local blacksmiths in their iron forges, driven by the river Czarna, didn't dare to work by day, but only by the light of the stars and moon. This is supposed to be the reason why the town adopted as its coat-of-arms a hammer, stars and moon, also a new name arose: "Hammerstern" (Harninerstar). The present name Hammerstein arose probably still later because the town greatly distinguished itself by having a carefully-made stone pavement. In 1456 at the beginning of the Prussian uprising against the Knights of the Cross, Czarne, along with other towns, surrendered to Poland. The Polish army then occupied them and their environs and every year took for itself the harvests from their fields: in 1459 the citizens of Chojnice wrote to the Grand Master of the Knights of the Cross that the Poles from Czarne want to come and cut down the grain from the fields around Chojnice; they ask that the Master protect them because otherwise they will have to surrender from hunger. Czarne definitely came back to Poland by the Peace of Torun in 1466. The Poles organized in Czarne a niegrodowe starosta-ship (3). In 1594 the starosta of Czarne was Micha1 Konarski. In 1624 a plague ruled in Czarne and the greater part of the citizenry perished.

In 1626 in the war with the Swedes a detachment of Cossacks reached Czarne and greatly annoyed the local Protestants (it must be pointed out that the inhabitants of Czarne almost all accepted early the so-called Reformation of Luther). In 1627 the Swedish commanders Jan Streif, Maksymilian Teufel and Jan Ketteritz arrived here with two regiments of horse and one of infantry (they came from Mecklenburg to aid the Swedes). They took over Czarne and sacked it. They even destroyed old papers and books from the town archives. After fourteen days of such work hetman Koniecpolski took them by surprise and conquered the town. The greater part of the army went over to Polish service; others, after swearing a collective oath that they would not fight against Poland, were set free; the three commanders, however, were taken into custody. In 1630 for the second time the town was laid waste by plague. From 1630 also comes the news that the local starosta Stanislaw Sapieha lived at the castle and greatly favored the dissenters. On October 25, 1653 Czarne burned down almost entirely to the ground. In 1659 at the time of the second war with the Swedes Adolf Jan, the brother of king Karol Gustaw arrived here with an army from Czluchów. He occupied the town and sacked it mercilessly. In 1665 again Czarne burned down almost to the ground. A third time it burned on March 7, 1693 in large part. On July 24, 1719 it burned a fourth time, such that only a heap of ruins remained. The fifth time in the course of a hundred years again it burned to the ground May 27, 1755.

In Czarne are two churches, one Catholic, the other Protestant. From of old the Catholics have had a parish church. Two brothers - Stanislaw and Jan Latalski, starostas of Czlu chów - spread the Reformation here, and the dissidents took over the Catholic church for a period of a little over fifty years before 1610. In order to support the Catholic faith archbishop Gbicki organized at this church a separate deanery of Czarne in 1617. Nineteen churches then belonged it: Czarne, Hansfelde, Koczala, Ekfir, Pienieznica, Starzno, Biatobór, Lakie, Grabowo, Witfelde, Falkenwalde, Breitenfelde, Kromsa, Elzanowo, Ruthenberg, Gockowy, Darzno, Domyslaw and Loza. The latter twelve churches disappeared mainly as a result of the Prussian occupation; the former seven were appended to the Czluchów deanery. In1650 the pastor and dean in Czarne, Arnold Eyman, created a foundation according to which every pastor and local dean was also automatically a canon at the nearby collegiate church in Kamieniu krajeicski. One condition he laid down was that the pastor or dean had to know German. In 1653 this church burned down; it did so again in 1755. Newly rebuilt in 1757 it still exists. In Czarne was maintained relatively late in history the so-called sheaf-tithing. In 1730 a church authority decreed that no one was to put his grain into his barn until after division, i.e., until the appurtenant tithe in sheaves from each type of grain was set apart. The parish of Czarne presently numbers five hundred souls. It has a filia in Hansfelde. Among the villages of the parish there are five in which Catholic churches existed before the Prussian occupation: Domyslaw, Falkenwalde, Gockowy, Ruthenberg and Loza. There is a Catholic school in Czarne; other children among the villages go to Evangelical schools. When the Lutherans were expelled from the parish church in 1610, they at first celebrated their services in the town hall; they built for themselves a separate church in 1676 and after fires in 1716, 1755 and the last time 1819.

Apart from some miscellaneous trade and industry the local inhabitants are employed mainly in agriculture. Every year there are four fairs: a flea market, cattle- and horse-fairs. In Czarne there has arisen in recent times a circuit court. There is a druggist, doctor, post office, telegraph station, railroad station, and Lutheran town school. Buildings in town are of brick. Certain remains of the Czarne castle were still extant in 1830. Since the population about Czarne has been Germanized from of old it comes as no surprise that the original name of the town - Czarne - has been lost. Even in Polish times whether in secular- or church- documents it has always been written Hamersztyn. Now the true name is known only among a few inquisitive and educated persons; I myself remember how the clerics in the seminary in Peiplin called this town Czarne. Fr. Schapke, born in Czarne, presently teacher of religion at the high school in New town, also writes me that he knows for certain, because he saw it on an old map at home with his parents, that next to the German name Hammerstein, was added the Polish name Czarne. Also he read as a boy, in a certain history book (he forgot the title) that in the description of a battle which hetman Koniecpolski waged against the Swedes in 1627 the town was called in Polish: Czarne. Fr. Kujot speaks up for the restoration of this old name in "Opactwie Pelpliuiskim, p. 479". (Opactwo Pelpliuiskie: Peiplin Abbey).

(1) wójt. The president of the town court in towns established on "German law". - Stownik Jezyka Polskiego pod1ug Lindego i Innych Nowszych Zródel', by E. Rykaczewskiego, Polish American Publishing Co., 1145 Noble St1., Chicago, Illinois. no date of publication given.

(2) Komtur. A commander of the Knights of the Cross. -ibid.

(3) Starosta. A nobleman on whom the king of Poland conferred a lifelong royal estate, either for service or for no service. Starostwo. Starosta-ship. The estate or office conferred. Starostwo grodowe allowed the starosta to judge criminal affairs in the castle or town (grod) with the right of capital punishment. Hence, starostwo niegrodowe withheld some or all of this definition. -ibid.



Czarne

A knightly village in Czluchów county. It lies next to the town of the same name. See above. It occupies 22,739.98 morgs. There are 63 dwelling houses, 85 Catholics, 268 Evangelicals. It has a school. This domain possesses huge forests with four forestry-districts: Adelheidsthal, Charlottenthal, Hansfelderbruck, and Jagersdorf. Also two settlements - W. and M. Hasselberg - belong to the domain.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Czarnisz

A peasant village in Chojnice county, 1/4 mile from the beaten track between Chojnice and Koscierzyna, in the parish of Brusy. Has a school. Size is 2815 morgs. There are 31 dwelling houses, 200 Catholics, 4 Lutherans. Sizable meadows lying in the vicinity are artificially irrigated from the stream Niechwarz, which empties into the river Czarna Woda. Ks. F.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2003)

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Czarnowo

A knightly village in Chojnice county. In the vicinity is the origin of the stream Niechwarz, which from the right side discharges into Czarna Woda. Czarnowo existed at the time of the Pomeranian princes. The inhabitants had Polish law then. In 1377 Winryk von Kniprode, the Grand Master of the Knights of the Cross, issued a new privelege based on Chelm law. In size, Czarnowo is 2,567 morgs. It has 23 dwelling houses, 237 inhabitants - all Catholic, and is in the Brusy parish.

Kaszube poet Jan Karnowski came from here.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted & translated by Gerald R. Schmidt, Pittsburgh, PA, shmitg@bellsouth.net (Feb 2001)

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Czarny Dunajec

- in the county of Nowy Targ

The village lies on both sides of the river with the same name in the Podhale area 15 Km from Nowy Targ. The larger territory has 1213 hectares of land of which 41 hectares is farmland. The smaller territory has 7 hectares of fields and gardens, a large section and 212 smaller sections. The larger section has 23 hectares of pastures while there are 1084 smaller sections. There is 455 hectares of forest in the smaller sections. The village has 413 houses that are construsted mostly out of concrete. It has a town square measuring 661.69 meters with houses all around it. There is a parish school that was built in 1750. The main product from he area is linen.

The begining of the colonization goes back to 1234. Wojewoda (Lord of Krakow) Cedro Count Gryf started a Roman Catholic parish. It was funded by Zofia Pieniazkowa from Boguslawic with her husband Jan of Krakow, while he was a Forman of Nowy Targ and Senator in 1589. Thomas Mietus was the local chief and the 1st vicar was Simon Bukwinski as approved by Zygmunt III in 1605.

The present concrete church was built in 1796 after the wooden one burned in 1787. The church ceiling fell in 1818 and burned on the 22 & 23rd of April 1859. This was the best parish in Podhale. Thedor Hawel archdeacon, plelate of Kamienica, a Canon of Gniezno rented it in 1774 and Gabriel Junosz Podoski an admistrator of the crown in Krakow, Canon of Gniezno, Abbot of Miechow and later Archbishop of Gniezno and Prymas in 1777 pastored at Czarny Dunajec which he owned, until 1756. Total parishioners: Wroblowska 2260, Podczerwone 698, Starebystre 1735, Miedzyczerwienne 1054, Ratulow 1299, Nowebystre 849, part of Ciche 827. A total of 9423 Roman Catholics and 280 Jews. The post office was owned by the Gmina. Northwest of Czarny Dunajec are hugh bogs, wetlands that stretch from the foot of Beskidy above Czarny Dunajec all the way to Jablonka at Orawa, over 7 km wide and 12 km long, which was was created from rotted tree stumps and evergreens. The rest of the forest, mostly pine, covered this territory for ages. From the village you can see Nowy Targ between the Zaskale and Ludzmierz villages, and not to far from Czarny Dunajec the border of Orawka. People use the bog material for fires and making fertilizer.

The elevation of the highest points in Czarny Dunajec are: a) the church 675.5 m, b) bogs, Wylewisko 700 m to the south from Odrowaz border, away from the populated territory above Piekielnik by the name Zary, 650 m, c) Zadkowka to the north border with Wroblowka 550 m, then west from the Wroblowka-Pieniazkowice road 658 m, d) the Nowy Targ cross road between the village Czarny Dunajec and the Czary stream 671 m, e) the crossing on the east bank of the Czary stream and the same road 661 m, f) south end of the village 684 m, g) road leading to Koniowka 100 m from the border 712 m, h) the road to Mietustwo that crosses above the Czary stream 686 m. This above survey was done by Dr. E. Janota, guide and traveler from Babia Gora to Tatry and Pieniny, Krakow in 1860. An illustrator, Walery Eliasz, traveled to Tarty, Pieniny and Szczawnica from Posnan and Krakow in 1870. W. Eliasz, made sketches of his travals to Tatry from Poznan and Krakow in 1874. Mary Steczkowska drew pictures as she traveled to Tatry and Pieniny from Krakow in 1872.

Czarny Dunajec has a post office. A flea market is held six times a year, mostly for sheep and wool, which the majority going to neighboring Hungary. In the year 1846, Czarny Dunajec fought against their neighbor Chocholow, in the Insurrection of Chocholow.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1880

Submitted and Translated by: Rose Szczech (Apr 1998)

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Czerlejno

Czerlejno: a gmina in Sroda powiat, two localities: the village of Czerlejno, and the rectory, Mikuszyn. Area 571 m—rgs, 45 houses, 296 inhabitants, 1 Evangelical, 295 Catholic, 9 illiterate. The parish church belongs to the deanery of Kostrzyn. The post office is in Kostrzyn, 6 km. away, and the railway station in Sroda, 13 km. away. In ancient times Czerlejno was the property of the chapter of the cathedral church in Gniezno. [M. St(udniarski)].

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1880, vol. 1, p. 809].

Translated by William F. Hoffman, PGSA Summer 2000 Bulletin.

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Czyste

Current administrative location: Czyste, Gmina Inowrocław, Powiat Inowrocław, Województwo Kujawsko–Pomorskie, Poland.

Administrative location in 1895 (Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego): Czyste, Kreis Inowroclaw, Regierungsbezirk Bromberg, Provinz Posen, Kaiserlich Deutsches Reich.

A village and dominium located in powiat Inowrocław. The Czyste dominium has an area of land equal to 1072 morgs. Czyste has 8 houses with 117 inhabitants (105 Catholics, 9 Evangelical Protestants and 3 Jewish). There are 63 inhabitants that are illiterate. The railway station is located about 7 kilometers away in Inowrocław.

The entry did not list the village's parish. The Jaksice Parish is located about 2-3 kilometers away.

Source: Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1895, vol.1, p.885].

Translated by Al Wierzba, December 2009. Originally posted on Al's Polish-American Genealogy Research Blog.

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