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A gubernya in Suwalki, is bordered on the north by Suwalki and Sejny counties, on the west and the south by Grodno gubernya, on the south -west by Lomza county, and on the west by Prussia. Total land measures 36.3 square miles. It is flat area with low elevation reach neighbouring counties under the name of the Augustow Hills. A large amount of forest, about 70 000 dziesiecin (old unit of measure), supplies water to the net of rivers , lakes and swamps.

The main rivers are: the Niemen as the east border of county, the Czarna Hancza River on the north border with Sejny county, and the Biebrza River on the south border. The branches within the county area are: Netta, Stawiska and Jastrzebanka and their numerous tributaries. Lakes are mostly located on the north -west side of the county ; the biggest are : Sajno, Necko, Biale, Nizsza Rospuda, Studzieniczne, Gorczyca, Orle, Paniewo, Krzywe, Mikoszewo as so on.

Sandy area creates the second class of rye soil, one of the poorest in Kingdom, Augustow county has the 5th place of a soil classification in Suwalki gubernya. The amount of wheat sowing ( in years 1870-1872) was 1.300 czetwiertni (old unit of measure), of rye - 16 000 czetw, and the average amount was ; 8 300 of wheat and 67 000 of rye. The livestock is without any worth. There are horse stables in Swiack and Wasilewicze, properties of the Wolowicze counts. Factory industry on low level. Except alcohol distilleries and breweries – there is the only one foundry of agriculture equipment in Sztabin. Handicraft production is limited to local and the simplest needs. The main rustics` occupations are: weaving and wood-distillation, trade concentrates in Augustow town and has no good results.

Means of communication; first of all navigable rivers: the Niemen, Biebrza and the Augustow canal crossing the county on the length of 98 wiorst, farther it crosses counties: a road to Kowno on the west side , and a road to Krolewiec on the east; they are linked by mail-road running to Lipsk and to Sopockinie.

Total population : 65 690 (1781 persons per one mile): 33 402 men and 32 253 women. The Augustow province was established after the Congress Kingdom in 1816, and remained untill 1837, when it was changed to a gubernya. The Augustow gubernya, one of the five of the former Kingdom territorial administration, was created from Augustow province in 1837, and was eliminated by a new territorial system in 1866, and in its place two new gubernyias were established: Suwalki and Lomza. The Augustow forestry is divided on 3 ranges: Szczerba, Sajenki and Swiderek.

Source: Slownik Geograficzny Krolestwa Polskiego - Warsaw [1880, vol. 1]

Submitted by Jay M. Orbik and translated by Iwona Dakiniewicz - June 2002


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