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by Bronisław Gustawicz

This is the entry on the Górale from the Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Volume 2, pp. 693-697. The author is described in the Słownik as a teacher at St. Anna’s gimnazjum [middle or high school] in Kraków; he wrote a number of entries for the Słownik, including the one on Galicia that appeared in the August 1996 Rodziny. This translation is by William F. Hoffman, with special thanks to Walter Maksimovich of www.lemko.org for help with several terms.

If you have any connections to southern or southeastern Poland, chances are you will find at least some information here useful. If you don’t have any roots in that part of the country, rare indeed is the person with Polish blood who doesn’t find the górale fascinating!

Górale, a general name for people living in the mountains, whether in Poland or in other countries.

I. The borders of the area inhabited by the highlanders [of Poland]. On the south the border of highlander settlements is the ridge of the Carpathians, which divides waters flowing north and east onto the Sarmatian lowland from waters flowing south to the Hungarian lowland. To the north highlander settlements do not go at any point beyond the last towering range of mountains connected with the foothills or with the adjacent northern plains. On the west and east every area inhabited by a highlander clan is set off by mountainous divides from the neighboring area inhabited by another clan.

II. Classification. In the mountains nature separates precisely valleys and the regions between the mountains with more or less accessible divisions; thus it does not unite the peoples, but rather divides them. One can ascribe to this fact the great variety of highlander clans, which are characterized by their lack of interming-ling. They are as follows:

1) The Jabłonkowianie, or Silesian highlanders, who occupy the northern slopes of the Silesian Beskids, or Jabłonkowskie Mountains, from the sources of the Ostrawica as it flows into the Odra [Oder] up to the source and heights of the Wisła [Vistula]; that is where our Carpathian góralszczyzna begins on the west.

2) the Żywczaki, settled in the densely populated valley of the Soła and Koszarzawa, who take their name from their capital, the town of Żywiec.

3) the Babiogórcy, who settled in the valley of the upper Skawa, on the northern slopes of Babia góra and Pilsko, who thus live as neighbors of the Żywczaki. As Żywiec is the capital of the Żywczaki, so Jordanów is the capital of the Babiogórcy, as they are called.

4) East of the latter, in the valley of the upper Raba, along both sides, live the Rabczanie or Zagórzanie. They are called that because, whether we approach their settlements from the south, from the Nowy Targ valley, or from the north, from the plains of the Wisła, their settlements always lie za góra [beyond the mountain].

5) Below the settlements of the Rabczanie, near Lubień and Pcim, live the Kliszczaki, or the Highlanders from Łętownia.

6) The northern slope of the Tatra mountains as far as the Nowy Targ valley is occupied by the so called Podhalanie, because when asked by an outsider “Where are you from, Highlander?” he proudly answers “Z hal” [“from the hali,” mountain pastures]. Thus the name.

7) The Nowy Targ valley, that is, the area between the Podhalanie and the Zagórzanie and Babiogórcy, is occuped by the settlements of the Nowotarżanie. They are also called Highlanders from Nowy Targ [Nowotarżanie = “ones from Nowy Targ”].

8) East of the Nowotarżanie, where the Nowy Targ valley narrows into the Pieniny ravine, the Pieniny highlanders settled along the gap of the Dunajec as far as Łącko; they are also called the highlanders from Krosścienko [on the Dunajec], which is the central point of this highlander clan. This clan is the transitional link between the highlanders of Podhale and Nowy Targ and

9) the highlanders of Sącz [also called Sandeczanie, from an older form of the name Sącz as seen in the names of the towns Nowy Sącz and Stary Sącz], who live in the Sącz valley at the confluence of the Dunajec, Poprad and Kamienica, going as far down as to Zbyszyce. The neighboring highlanders from the high mountains call them the Równiacy [people of the plains], because they occupied a large valley situated in the backwoods of the mountains, and in their lifestyle they are closer to the people of the równiny [plains].

10) The basins of the upper Poprad and the adjacent divisions in the areas of Szlachtowa and Piwniczna up to Rytro past the course of the Poprad, and subsequently the entire heights of the Kamienia and upper Biała as far as Grybów, are occupied by the highlanders whom we call Spiżacy because of the bordering Spiż region [this region, called Spisz in modern Polish, is now mostly in northern Slovakia, and is called Spis¹ in Slovakian]. They also call themselves the Gardłaki. Their central meeting point is Muszyna and Tylicz.

11) The whole area of the lower Beskids from the sources of the Ropa to the sources of the San is inhabited by the Czuhońcy (Czuchońcy) or Kurtacy, who are called that from the short outfit and upper jacket which they call the czuhoń. The small towns of Żmigród, Dukla, Jaśliska, Bukowsko and Baligród lie within the borders of the area occupied by this highlander clan. Most likely in ancient times this clan, along with the Spiżacy, crossed the ridge of the Beskids from the southern (Hungarian) slopes of the Carpathians to this area. They are also called the highlanders of Sanok or the Łemkos, from the adverb łem, which they use in the meaning “only.” They call themselves Rusnacy.

12) In the high divides in the bend of the Wisłok, in ten villages from Gwożdzianka to Czarnorzeki, live high-landers whose dress and customs are like those of the Kurtacy [the plural form Kurtaki is also seen], but they nonetheless form a separate clan, which is said to have originated with Cossack prisoners of war who settled in this formerly empty region. Their settlements are as follows: Blizianka, Gwożdzianka, Krasna, Bonarówka, Oparówka, Rzepnik, Wola Pietrusza, Bratkówka, Węglówka and Czarnorzeki.

13) Also formerly empty, the mountain sections between the high point of the San and Dniestr rivers is populated today by the so-called Wallachian settlements, in which, beginning in the 14th century, actual Wallachians settled, but now another population has settled on terms of Wallachian law. Some of these settlements preserve traits of their original ethnicity; others have taken on the characteristics of the neighboring highlanders, depending on how near they lie to the settlements of the Czuchońcy to the west or the Bojkos to the east. In terms of ancestral traits there are today Wallachian settlements of Slovenian and Podgórzanie origin. Some of their villages actually lie on the aforesaid borderland and can be numbered among the highlanders’ settlements; that is why they are included here. Other settlements are farther north and belong under a descrip-tion of Podgórze [literally “foothills,” according to the Nowa encylopedia powszechna PWN the name given to territory south of Kraków and east of the Wisła that came under Austrian rule in 1815, of which the administrative center was Podgórze, which was later incorporated into the city of Kraków]. The borderland was settled much later and only when it had to be, due to the fact that here nature itself raised a border between the Czuhonńcy and Bojkos with the ridge of the Sanok mountain pastures. The original inhabitants, having enough fertile land in the valleys, felt no need to advance into the unused mountains. Our people do not have the courage to fight with nature, and these regions were populated only due to the power of Polish institutions when those institutions were influencing the expansion of the populace. The Wallachian settlements, both of the highlanders and of Podgórze, according to Wincenty Pol, are the following: a) in Sanok county: Tyrawa wołoska, Królik wołoski, Puławy, Darów, Surowica, Moszczaniec, Jawornik, Czystohorb, Komanńcza, Turzańsk, Duszatyn and Mików; b) in Lisko county: Łupków, Smolnik, Wola michowa, Maniów, Balnica, Szczerbanówka, Solinka, Wetlina, Smerek, Jaworzec, Tworylne, Serednie małe, Polana, Skorodne, Roselin, Rosochate, Lutowiska, Krywka, Żurawin, Smolnik (another one), Procisne, Dwernik, Chmiel, Ruskie, Zatwarnica, Hulski, Krywe, Berehy dolne, Strwiążyk, Nanowa, Ustrzyki dolne and Ustrzyki górne, and Stuposiany; c) finally, in Turka county: Boberka, Dydiowa, Łokieć, Szandrowiec, Dźwiniacz górny, Tarnawa niźnia and Tarnawa wyźnia, Sokoliki, Bukowiec, and Beniowa [a number of these communities are now across the border in western Ukraine].

14) The next highlander clan are the Bojkos; they occupied the High Beskids from the sources of the Dniestr as far as the Świca. They also are called Wierzchowińcy (Verkhovyntsi) from the land they inhabit. [These terms mean “highlanders, mountaineers” in Polish and Ukrainian, respectively; the language of the Bojkos is similar to Ukrainian]. (See Bojki).

15) Among the Bojkos, in the area of the Opor and Orawa rivers, in the region called Tucholszczyna, the small and very old clan of the Tucholcy settled. In the borders of the settlements of Bojkos and Tucholcy lie the towns of Turka and Skole [now in Ukraine].

16) The final highlander clan on the northern slope of the eastern flank of the Carpathian range are the Hutsuls [in Polish Huculi], who also proudly call themselves Czarnogórcy from the highest peak of their mountains. This is one of the bravest highlander clans, and the borders of their settlements cross the border of Galicia and extend as far as to Bukovina and Hungary.

III. A more general division, according to Wincenty Pol, is the following: a) the highlander land of the western flank of the Carpathians; b) the highlander land of the central Beskids; and c) the highlander land of the eastern flank of the Carpathians. Wincenty Pol includes among highlanders of the western flank of the Carpathians the Jabłonkowianie, Podhalanie, Nowotarżanie, Pieniny Highlanders, Sandeczanie [i. e., those of the Sącz area], Żywczaki, Babiogórcy, Zagórzanie, and Kliszczaki; to the highlanders of the central Beskids belong the Spiżacy and Czuhońcy; to those of the eastern flank belong the Bojkos, Tucholcy, and Hutsuls.

IV. Area. The whole highlander settle-ment area on the northern slopes of the Carpathians occupies over 400 square milas [one Austrian mila = 7.585937 km]. The western highlander area covers 8 towns, i. e., Żywiec, Maków, Jordanów, Nowytarg, Kros´cienko, Nowy Sącz, Stary Sącz, and Tymbark, and 403 villages. The Jabłonkowianie lands have a total of 13 villages; the Żywczaki occupy 76 villages; the Babiogórcy 40; the Zagórzanie 42; the Kliszczaki 14; the Podhalanie 27; the Nowotarz²anie 31; the Pieniny Highlanders 21; and the Sandeczanie 139. The highlander area of the central Beskids has 6 towns, i. e., Tylicz, Jaśliska, Baligród, Bukowsko, Dukla, and Żmigród, and 304 villages, of which the Spiżacy have 33, and the rest, 271, belong to the Kurtacy. Finally, the eastern highlander area has 6 towns and 188 villages; the Bojkos occupy the most, 81 villages and 2 towns, in the deanery of Wysoczany; the Tucholcy occupy 26 villages, and the Hutsuls 2 towns in the deanery of Nadwórna [Nadvirna, Ukraine], one in Pistyń [Pistyn’, Ukraine] and 1 in Kossów [Kosiv, Ukraine]; so in the whole area the highlanders have settled in 24 towns and small towns, and 895 villages.

V. Population. According to Pol the whole highlander area has 594,712 souls (as of 1851), of which 317,641 live in the western part, 130,429 in the central Beskids, and 146,642 in the eastern part. In the western part the largest group is the Żywczaki clan, numbering 72,912 souls, and the smallest are the Kliszczacy with 17,309; after that come the Pieniny High-landers with 18,809; the Jabłonkowianie (22,000?), the Podhalanie with 22,302, the Nowotarz²anie with 29,115, the Zagórzanie with 36,935, the Sandeczanie with 46,924, and the Babiogórcy with 51,335. In the central highlander area the Spiżacy clan number 20,530, and the Czuhońcy 109,899. In the eastern area there are 73,676 Hutsuls, 57,553 Bojkos, and 15,413 Tucholcy. The western highlander area belongs to the Roman Catholic rite, but those of the central and eastern areas are Greek Catholic. Among the Hutsuls in the deaneries of Nadwórna, Pistyń and Kossow, however, are 1,405 Roman Catholics; and finally the Hutsuls who inhabit Bukowina in Dołhopole [Dovhopole, Ukraine] deanery belong primarily to the Greek rite.

VI. General characteristics of the high-lander region. Highlander settlements are usually widely scattered, because their farms, with gardens and land around them, are often several hectares from each other. Their cabins are generally neater than those of the people of the plains. The highlanders build them with logs and roof them with tile and lathing. They don’t use clay, plaster and whitening at all, because they have no lime; but they do have plenty of wood. They fill in gaps between joists with moss, and they wash the smooth-hewn walls on the inside like floors. Chimneys are a very rare phenomenon among them; they generally conduct smoke up to the loft, where it exits through openings in the roof. In some areas they put covered porches on the fronts of their cabins to shelter them from snowstorms.
Their dress is generally short and tight-fitting, but light and warm, adapted to the sharp climate and difficult climbing among the mountains. The highlander puts on a short gunia (hunia) [overcoat] of his own make over a collarless linen shirt, and in winter adds a small coat. His head is shaded with long hair, usually flowing down to the shoulders, and is covered with a round felt hat or cap, the style of which varies by region. He wears a wide belt of hard leather, fastened with a long row of large brass buckles, often embroidered in various colors. He wears pants with clasps, of coarse white fabric, the seams trimmed with colored string, and on his feet are light, soft kierpce [moccasins], which he secures with straps wrapped tightly around his ankles. His bag, from which he is never separated, hangs from his shoulder on a strap generally adorned with tightly studded brass hobnails; in it he keeps supplies for the road and a short pipe, sometimes also a powder horn. A shotgun hanging from his other shoulder, and in his hand a small ax, which some highlander clans, for instance the Hutsuls, can use with amazing skill, complete the picturesque dress of the highlander and gives his whole form an air of of reckless freedom and impudence. The highlander women also wear moccasins, or on rare occasions colored saffian shoes, and wear overcoats and coats much like those of the men; the women cover their heads with scarfs or white peremitki [Ukr. term, “head-cloths”]; the girls weave their hair into braids. In some clans, namely the Ruthe-nian highlanders, instead of pants the womenfolk use woolen aprons, which they tie around their hips, and they ride horses and smoke pipes like the men.

Living a hardy but free life, in the woods, mountain pastures and alps, the highlanders are, with only a few exceptions (such as the Spiżacy) quite strong, muscular, slender in build, and are characterized by their agility. More lively, more im-petuous and more daring than the people of the plains, they are more prone to be carried away by passion, are more easily inflamed with vengeance, and in their passion often commit bloody crimes. The love of their wild freedom has often degenerated to a lust for robbery, and to this day the highlanders still repeat with relish tales of ancient ruffians and robbers and praise them in their songs as heroes. The highlanders compensate for these flaws, however, with greater self-respect than is usual among the people of the plains; greater cleanliness in their dress and dwelling; greater skill, swiftness and valor; and finally with a hospitality and openness charac-teristic of all their clans. Happy in his lot and more often merry than sad, inured to cold and want, the highlander is content for months at a time with an oatcake and ewe’s whey; and he passionately loves his mountains, even though there is cold and hunger there, and he himself sings of them, “Biedna to, biedna ta nasza kraina, gdzie chleb się kończy, a woda zaczyna” [Poor, poor is our country, where the bread ends and the water begins].

Due to the lack of farmland and bread but an abundance of fodder, the highlander is primarily a herdsman. Only as the mountains rise lower and the slopes are milder does he become part farmer; but he does not stop raising cattle and sheep, which always provide his main income. The crops which the thankless mountain fields yield reluctantly are not enough to feed the local populace for the whole year. Having really nothing other than his oats—in some highlander regions called chleb [bread] for that reason—the highlander must buy other kinds of seed in the plains and bring them into the mountains, namely, rye; or, for the Hutsuls and Kurtaki, corn and millet. That’s where the Kurtaki saying comes from, “Tenderycia najby sia rodyła, łem do nas by ne chodyła.” [“Let the corn grow, as long as it doesn’t come here.” Walter Maksimovich explains, “Corn was looked down upon at the time, only used to supple-ment edible grain, come springtime, when the rye, oats, and wheat (a delicacy) have run out”].
To cover the resulting significant cost of provisions, they are compelled to resort to various means of earning money, since the income from the animals in their barns does not always and everywhere suffice for their needs. So they work with picks, hammers, and wheelbarrows in mines and forges; they work with axes and saws in forests; they work producing shingles and planks, matchsticks, dishes, wood furniture and ornamental hatchets; they guide rafts when the waters are high, at which they distinguish themselves by their skill and courage; they work at weaving; some-times they even leave the mountains in masses and go down to the valleys to do mowing and harvesting; or to earn their bread more easily, they conduct transac-tions with small amounts of capital, as the Bojkos do, or fix up horsewagons and travel to far lands with knitting needles or kobza [a stringed musical instrument], as the highlanders of the western part of the mountains do. Thus need makes the highlanders more industrious and versatile than the people of the plains. For detailed descriptions of every highlander clan, see the appropriate entry.

VII. Physical characteristics. In the light of scientific research people’s physical characteristics as estimated by sight have often turned out to be inadequate and even wrong. The scientific observations of the Podhalanie conducted due to the efforts of the anthropological commission of the Akademia Umiejętności in Kraków have indeed been partially extended to observa-tions of the neighboring highlanders; since in many respects, however, there are no prominent physical differences between one group and another—and where there are differences, they have been empha-sized—I have extracted the most important details on the physical characteristics either of the Podhalanie alone, or of those neighboring highlanders taken together, from the comprehensive study, done with scientific precision, by Prof. Dr. J. Majer and Dr. Kopernicki, Charakterystyka fizyczna ludności galicyskiej [Physical Characteristics of the Galicia Populace] in volume 1 (pp. 3-181), Zbiór wiadomości do antropologii krajowej [Collection of information on the National Anthropology (Kraków, 1877) and I have compiled them in brief here. First and foremost it must be men-tioned that the details excerpted below deal with men 20–25 years in age.

1) The height of the Polish highlanders in general is 153.9–164.5 cm. [60.021–64.155 inches; multiply centimeters by 0.39 to get inches]. The highlanders of Nowy Targ county are 156.5–164.6 cm., and so are absolutely average. The height of the western Podgórzanie (living from the Soła to the Dunajec) is 157.9–163.2 cm.; for the eastern Podgórzanie (from the Dunajec to the San) it is 160.2–164.7; the height of inhabitants of the plains is 160.9–164.0; the height of inhabitants of the lowlands is 159.5–165.0. To compare the height of the highlanders and people of the plains with other European peoples one may use the following data: for Finns 161.7 cm.; east-ern Slavs and Magyars, 163.1 cm.; the Swiss of Freiburg canton) 164.0 cm.; Romanians 165.7 cm.; the French 165.8; Russians 167.8 cm.; Germans 168.0 cm.; Belgians 168.4 cm.; Danish 168.5 cm.; Irish 169.8 cm.; Swedes 170.0 cm.; English 170.8 cm.; Scots 171.2 cm.; Norwegians 172.7 cm.

2) Chest circumference among Podhalanie and Nowotarżanie measures 82.4–84.0, altogether 83.3 cm. [32.5 inches]. Comparing measurements of abso-lute breadth of chest of the Podhalanie with the highlanders of the eastern Beskids, the latter were found to be 78.2–80.0 cm., and for the Podgórzanie 81.2–82.4 cm.

3) Skin color. In the study mentioned this is differentiated as: a) biały [white] in the strict sense, that is, flesh-white without any tanning; b) płowy [flaxen], more or less the tanned complexion of our villagers; c) śniady [tawny], seen sometimes with our dark-haired men, close to the so-called eastern complexion, and typical to the highest degree of Gypsies. In the county of Nowy Targ, of 188 persons, 67 were white, 55 flaxen, and 67 tawny; or expressed in terms per 100 people, 35.1 had white complexions, 29.3 flaxen, and 35.6 tawny. Or if one distinguishes only two skin colors, light and dark, of every 100 people in Nowy Targ county 50 had light-colored skin. Among the Podhalanie, Nowotarżanie, and Pieniny highlanders, the tawny complexion has the largest number, but white is almost equal. Comparing the Podhalanie with residents of other geographic subdivisions of the western part of the land [Galicia] as far as the San river, it was found that of 100 inhabitants, those with light-colored complexions were as follows: in Podhale 50, in the western Beskids 70, in the eastern Beskids 49, in western Podgórze 64, in eastern Podgórze 67, in the plains 70, in the valleys 59, on the border with Ruthenia 71.

4) Eye color. Assuming four colors—gray, green, blue and hazel—in Nowy Targ county, out of 188 persons, 13 had gray eyes, 51 had green, 52 had blue, and 72 had hazel; in terms of percentages the numbers are 6.9, 27.1, 27.6 and 38.4. If we distinguish eye color only as light and dark, in Podhale of every 100 persons 61 have light-colored eyes. Retaining the same order as above, in the western Beskids, of 256 persons, the numbers were 64, 86, 41 and 65, or in percentages 25.0, 33.6, 16.0, and 25.4. Comparing the eye color of inhabitants of Podhale to the inhabitants of other geographic subdivisions of the western part of the country as far as the San, of every 100 persons, the following have light-colored eyes: in Podhale 61, in the western Beskids 74, in the eastern Beskids 73, in western Podgórze 68, in eastern Podgórze 71, in the plains as far as the San 80, in the valleys in the same region 68, and on the border with Ruthenia 79.

5) Hair color. If we distinguish four common hair colors—blond, szatyn [chestnut], brunatny [brown] and czarny [black]—as well as two that are rare among us, biało-lniany [white-flaxen] and rudy [red], of 188 persons in Nowy Targ county 65 were blond, 75 had chestnut hair, 17 had brown hair, and 31 had black; or of every 100 persons, 34.6 were blond, 39.9 chestnut, 9.1 brown, 16.4 black. Going by geographic subdivisions of the western part of the country as far as the San river, if we divide by hair color, taking the two main colors, light and dark, of every 100 persons the following had light-colored hair: in Podhale 56, in the western Beskids 80, in the eastern Beskids 46, in western Podgórze 70, in eastern Podgórze 62, in the plains as far as the San 79, in the valleys 76, and on the border with Ruthenia 53.
Altogether if we divide skin, eye and hair color into light and dark as typical traits, and assuming these two colors, light and dark, of 188 persons in Podhale 3 fell into the category of light, including flaxen, and 32 were pure light, for a total of 35; or of every 100 people 18.6 fell into the light category; 43, or 22.9%, fell into the dark category; 100, or 58.5%, were mixed. Among the Podhalanie the dark category has the greater number.

6) Hair form. Ethnologists distinguish straight or smooth hair, even, falling without folds, or standing out; wavy with gentle curved bends; curly, short, twisted tightly; and finally in ringlets, bunching in locks. The predominant form—one may say the common form—is straight hair.

7) As regards skull construction and form, among the Polish populace in Galicia the brachycephalic type predominates [i. e., having a short, broad head]; the highlanders have heads significantly wider than the people of the plains in particular. The per-centages for every skull shape, beginning with the most elongated to the broadest, are as follows among the highlanders: those with long skulls 1.1, and elongated 2.6, for a total of 3.7 dolichocephalic [with long heads]; intermediate 10.5; somewhat short 37.5, and short 48.2, for a total of 85.7 brachycephalic. It should be mentioned that the highlanders of the western Beskids and Podhalanie in particular differ from those of the eastern Beskids in that among the former the brachycephalic are more common (85.7) than among the latter (80.4); it has also been observed that the brachycephalic type, the most common one among the highlanders, is encountered less often the closer one comes to the valleys on the Wisła, and also the farther east one advances into the area of the Ruthenians [Rusyns].

8) In regard to forehead measurements we find that among the highlanders average-size foreheads and occiputs are significantly more common than wide and narrow ones, which are found among them in very small numbers. The highlanders of the eastern Beskids, however, differ significantly in this regard from the Podhalanie and highlanders of the western Beskids, and are more like the inhabitants of the plains, among whom, as opposed to the highlanders, wide foreheads and occiputs are very common, comprising one-eighth, while those with average foreheads and occiputs scarcely exceed half of the total observed among them. The percentages of those with wide foreheads and occiputs are as follows: among the highlanders wide foreheads 9.5%, average 83.9%, narrow 7.1%; wide occiputs 12.0%, average 80.1%, narrow 7.8%; among Podgórzanie wide foreheads are 22.2%, average 71.3%, 5.9% narrow; wide occiputs 24.1%, average 61.0%, narrow 14.8%; among those living on the Wisła wide foreheads constitute 37.1%, average 62.4%, narrow 0; wide occiputs 86.6%, average 11.1%, narrow 2.2%. The highlanders have foreheads somewhat narrower and occiputs some-what wider than the people of the plains, so that among the former the traits men-tioned predominate, especially among the highlanders of the eastern Beskids. This percentage among the people of the plains is as follows; wide foreheads 22.4%, average 68.6%, narrow 8.5%; wide occiputs 30.7%, average 56.5%, and narrow 13.2%.

9) As regards facial structure, facial length among the people of the plains is somewhat larger than among the highlanders. The highlanders of the western Beskids and the Podhalanie have some-what longer faces than their neighbors of the eastern Beskids. Facial width is significantly greater among the highlanders than among the people of the plains, and among the highlanders of the western Beskids it is greater than among those of the eastern Beskids. Facial form turns out to be significantly longer among the people of the plains (102) than among the highlanders (94). Among the Podhalanie and highlanders of the western Beskids on the one hand, and those of the eastern Beskids on the other, there is almost no difference, as both the former and latter have round faces (93.8% and 94.4%). Among the highlanders 4.2% have long faces, 5.3% elongated, for a total of 9.5% with long faces; 5.6% have oval faces; 36.9% have round faces; 48.0% have wide faces, for a total of 84.9% wide.

10) Finally, as regards nose shape, four types are distinguished: aquiline, straight, flat, and upturned [i. e., snub-nosed]. Among the highlanders straight noses pre-dominate, as there are 5.0% with aquiline noses, 68.7% with straight, 11.3% with flat, and 14.5% with upturned.
According to the observations made so far one may characterize the highlanders in the western stretch of the country, as far as the San, as follows: the highlanders have short heads, or shortish; they have average foreheads and occiputs, wide and narrow ones being quite rare; their faces are usually wide or round, with oval or long faces rare; the nose is straight, some-times flat or upturned, very rarely aquiline.

VIII. Literature. L. Tatomir, Geografia Galicyi, 1876.—W. Pol. Północne stoki Karpat [The Northern Slopes of the Carpathians], Kraków 1851.—L. Zejszner, Pieśni ludu Podhalan [Songs of the Podhalanie People], Warszawa 1845.—L. D., Górale beskidowi zachodniego pasma Karpat [The Beskid Highlanders of the Western Carpathian Range], Kraków 1851.—S. Goszczyński, Dziennik podróży do Tatrów [Journal of a Trip to the Tatras], Petersburg 1854.—S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedya powszechna [General Encyclopedia], Warszawa 1862, vol. X.—A. Bielowski, Pokucie (supplement to Czas 1857, VI).—Ks. S. Witwicki, Rys historyczny o Hucułach [Historical Sketch of the Hutsuls], Lwów 1863.—W. Zawadzki, Obrazy Rusi Czerwonej [Images of Red Ruthenia], Poznan´ 1869.—Majer and Kopernicki, Charakterystyka ludności galicyjskiej [Characteristics of the Populace of Galicia], Kraków 1877.—Kopernicki, Zagadki i gadki ludu góralskiego [Riddles and Tales of the Highlander People] Kraków 1877.—Janota. Lud, zwyczaje i obyczaje jego [The People, Their Habits and Customs], Lwów 1878.—B. Gustawicz, Wycieczka w Czorsztyńskie [Excursion to the Czorsztyn Area] Warsaw, 1881 (the ethnographic section].—B. Gustawicz, Podania, przesa³dy, gadki i nazwy ludowe w dziedzinie przyrody [Folk Legends, Superstitions, Tales and Names in the Field of Nature], Kraków 1881.

Translator’s Note—In this entry Gustawicz used the term górale to refer to highlanders living all throughout south-central and southeastern Poland, on into what is now western Ukraine. He specifi-cally included the related but distinct Slavic groups living in the Carpathians of western Ukraine, such as the Hutsuls, Lemkos, and Bojkos, among the rody góralskie, “highlander clans.”

But Walter Maksimovich of www.lemko.org points out, “The term góral only applies to the Polish highlanders of Nowy Targ/Zakopane. Hutsuls, etc. are not Polish highlanders, therefore not górale. So I would use ‘highlander’ as a general term, not góral.”

That is why I have translated góral as “highlander” throughout this entry. I think in modern Polish, especially, when people say górale they’re referring to the highlanders of southcentral and southeastern Poland, not the Hutsuls, Lemkos, Bojkos, etc. It is worth keeping in mind that those groups would probably not appreciate being lumped in together with the Polish highlanders. They are highlanders—but they’re not Poles!]

Here are a few English-language Websites with info on the górale:

You can find many more by using any good Web search engine to look for pages with terms such as “goral,” “Polish Highlander,” “Tatras,” “Beskids”, “Podhalans,” “Lemkos,” and so on.

Source: Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego - Warsaw 1885

Translated by William F. Hoffman

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